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Ryazan

RyazanModern Ryazan is an administrative centre of Ryazanskaya oblast. It is situated on the Central Russian upland, on the right bank of the river Oka at flowing of the river Trubezh into it. The climate is continental with moderately cold winter and warm summer. Average temperature of January is -11.5, of July + 19 degrees centigrade. Precipitations are of 500 mm a year.
Ryazan is the junction of railroads (to Moscow, Vladimir, Ruzayevka, Ryazhsk) and highways. It has a large quay and the airport. The population makes 528,5 thousand people (1992). The city area is 175,6 sq. km. Distance to Moscow is 196 km.
The city arose as a trading and defensive point of the Ryazan princedom. It was called Pereyaslavl Ryazansky. In 1995 Ryazan celebrated its 900s anniversary (the city Pereyaslavl Ryazansky was laid in 1095. 'Old' Ryazan that was burnt down by Golden Horde in 1237 is much ancient (more than 1000 years).
Modern Ryazan is the multipurpose city. It is the diversified industrial centre with the heavy industries. The leading part is played by machine-building. Enterprises are as follows: the machine-tool production association, "Tyazhpressmash", "Ryazanmash"; plants of automobile units, automobile equipment, electronic devices, ceramic-metal devices, analytical machines, the radio plant, oil refining plant, "Teplopribor", "Khimvolokno" production association, plant "Ryaztsvetmet". Besides there are enterprises of the light, food and wood-working industries and manufacture of building materialRyazans.
There are two railway and two bus stations, more than 10 hotels, 10 Institutions of Higher Education, 10 scientific ard research institutes, three state theatres, the circus, two concert halls, 6 Internet providers, the amazing Kremlin in Ryazan. The Ryazan Kremlin is the most ancient centre of the city laid right in the end of XI century (1095).
Institutes: the Radio Engineering, Agricultural, Pedagogical, Medical Institute; branches of the Moscow Institute of Culture and the Moscow State Open University. Research and project institutes.
Theatres: the Drama, the Young Spectators' Theatre, the Puppet Theatre. The Historical and Architectural Museum; the Art Museum (collections of Russian, Soviet and West-European painting, arts and crafts); the House - Museum of physiologist I.P.Pavlov.
In the old part of the city in the territory of the former Kremlin stand the Christ's, Archangels and Uspensky Cathedrals; Arkhiyereyskiye Chambers ("Oleg's Palace") and some ancient churches.

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