Norilsk , city (1989 pop. 175,000), Krasnoyarsk Territory, North Siberian Russia. The northernmost major city of Russia and the world`s second largest city (after Murmansk) above the Arctic Circle, Norilsk is the centre of a region where nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, and coal are mined. A railroad links Norilsk with the Yenisei port of Dudinka, from where ores are shipped via the Northern Sea Route to European Russia. Hydroelectric plants are nearby and natural gas is found in Tyumen. Founded in 1935, Norilsk was the site of forced labor camps during the Stalin era.
Molten raw material in Norilsk is transported in huge buckets through the copper smelter. In total, Norilsk produces over 90 percent of Russia's nickel, 58 percent of copper, over 80 percent of cobalt and almost 100 percent of the platinum-group metals.
Climate is subarctic, continental, monthly average temperatures of air are negative 2/3 of a year, only July and August monthes are warm. Peculiarity of winter is a combination of low temperatures and a strong heavy wind. The polar night lasts since December till January, the polar day since May till June.
Streets of Norilsk city are situated perpendicularly to a direction of a wind. The closed yards and contours of microdistricts also contribute to creation of " wind shadow " and protect houses from snow drifts.
Among architectural constructions are: Drama theatre (1954), a swimming pool (1959) and the Palace of culture of the Muntain - Metallurgical Combine (1965), covered skating rink.
In vicinities of city there are surprising places on beauty named " Red stones ". On lake Lama there are comfortable camp sites.