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Mongolian Invasion
Golden Horde: Prosperity and Fall
Northeast Russia in the second half of the XIIIth century
The Battle of the Neva.
Russian Lands after Baty's Invasion.
The Fight between Moscow and Tver. The rise of Moscow.
Northeast Russia after Mongolian Invasion
Social - Economical Development of Russia in the XIVth century.
The Consequences of Mongolian Invasion.
Russian Culture in the Period of the Mongol-Tatar Invasion.
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Social - Economical Development of Russia in the XIVth century.

The social and economical fields underwent serious changes in the XIVth century.
After the crisis in the north-eastern part of Russia in the second half of the
XIIIth century the reconstruction of agriculture and the revival of craft manufacturing took place.

The development and economical rise of the cities, which didn't play big part in pre-Mongolian period (Moscow, Tver, Nizhni Novgorod, Costroma) was observed in the XIVth century. Serf building was on the rise and the erection of stone churches, which was postponed for half of the century with
Baty's invasion was renewed.

The expansion of ancestor land possessions took place in the XIVth century by means of land's distribution by the princes to boyars and nobility.
Still the significant part of the territories remained the property of the state, it was called black. The black lands were often given to boyars with the right of taking taxes in their own favor. Monastery landowning was starting to expand from the second half of the XIVth century. The average agricultural population was called Christians (from Christianity). The category of kholops (lackeys) also existed.

The XIVth century was marked by the rapid development of craft manufacturing and agriculture in the Northeast part of Russia. An extensive differentiation of the existing technologies occurred together with the appearance of new ones. For example, the separation between the ore mining and smelting and its further processing.

There were a number of new crafts appearing in leather shoe manufacturing in the XIVth century, such as belt, bags and bridle production, etc. The use of water mills and water wheels was extending, parchment was actively being ousted by paper, and the size of working iron details of the fork was enlarged.

Salt making was widely spread in Old Russia, Soli Galitskaya and Kostromskaya areas.
Bookmaking works started to appear in major principalities and monastery. Copper founding (bell founding) workshops for art
castings emerged and the art of enamel filigree was renewed. The development of agriculture was slower than that of manufacturing. Reseeding had been ousted by field tillage. Double fielding was widely used, virgin lands were cultivated and new villages were built. The number of cattle grew, causing fertilizer
application of soil.

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