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Mongolian Invasion
Golden Horde: Prosperity and Fall
Northeast Russia in the second half of the XIIIth century
The Battle of the Neva.
Russian Lands after Baty's Invasion.
The Fight between Moscow and Tver. The rise of Moscow.
Northeast Russia after Mongolian Invasion
Social - Economical Development of Russia in the XIVth century.
The Consequences of Mongolian Invasion.
Russian Culture in the Period of the Mongol-Tatar Invasion.
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The Consequences of Mongolian Invasion.

By the conqueror's right the Golden Horde's khan Batyi forced princes of Russian lands to acknowledge his supreme power (suzerainty). Russian lands didn't become the part of the Golden Horde's territories; paying the tribute -Horde's withdrawal - and the Golden Horde's khan distribution of labels, patents for reigning for Russian rulers, expressed their dependence. Unlike multiple internal wars, Mongolian Invasion devastated simultaneously all the Russian lands.

Paying the tribute to the Horde was the terrible result of Mongolian Invasion. The raise of the tribute was started in the 40s of XIII, and in 1257 by the order of khan Berke the Mongols made the census of Northeast Russia (number), establishing the amount of levy. Only clergy was excused from paying the withdrawal (Mongols featured with toleration before the adoption of Islam in the beginning of XIV century). The representatives of khan - Baskaks - were assigned to control the tribute collection. Since that time Russian princes themselves, who were held under control by means of distribution of labels for reigning, were holding the tribute collection.

The question of the impact of Mongol-Tatar Invasion and the establishment of the Horde's dominion at all times was regarded as a debate one. There are three main viewpoints at this problem in native historiography. First, is the acknowledgement of the significant and mainly positive influence of the conquerors on the development of Russia, which has encouraged the process of creation of the united Moscow state.

The founder of this viewpoint was N.M. Karamzin, and the so-called Eurasians developed it in the 20s of the present century. Unlike L.N. Gumilev, who pictured the good neighborly, allied atmosphere between Russia and the Horde, Eurasians didn't deny such evident factors as devastating campaigns of Mongol-Tatars, raising heavy tributes, etc.

Other historians (such as S.M. Solovyev, V.O. Kluchevsky, S.F. Platonov) viewed the influence of the conquerors upon the internal life of old Russian society as very insignificant. They supposed that the processes, which took place in the second half of XIII-XIV centuries, were the result of the preceding period, or appeared independently from the Horde's interference.

Finally, many historians hold to intermediate position. The influence of the conquerors on the development of Russia is considered as remarkable, but not determinant (but certainly negative). B.D. Grekov, A.N Nasonov, V.A. Kouchkin and others supposed that the formation of the united state took place not thanks to, but contrary to the Horde.

According to the modern level of knowledge of economical, social, political and cultural development of Russia in XIII-XV, and the character of relations between Russia and the Horde, one can name the consequences of the Invasion. The influence upon economical field was expressed in devastation of territories during campaigns and raids, which were especially frequent in the second half of XIII century. The most severe thrust was inflicted to cities. Second, the conquest led to impoverishment of the country by means of exhaustion of significant material funds with the horde's 'withdrawal' and other tributes.

The Horde aimed at influencing the political life of Russia. The enemy's efforts were directed at preventing the consolidation of Russian lands by means of opposition of principalities to each other and their mutual weakening. With those purposes the changes of territorial and political structure of Russia were undertaken by the khans' initiative: new principalities were formed (Nizhni Novgorod principality), and the old ones were split (Vladimir principality).

One of the consequences of the Invasion in XIII became the growing isolation of the Russian lands, and weakening of south and west principalities. As a result, they became the part of an early feudal state, which had emerged in XIII, the great Lithuanian principality: Polotsk and Turovo-Pinsk principalities by the beginning of XIV century, Volynsk principality - in the middle of XIV century, Kiev and Chernigov principalities - in the 60s of XIV century, Smolensk principality - in the beginning of XV century.

As a result, Russian state organization (under the Horde's suzerainty) only lasted out in Northeast Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal land), in Novgorod, Murom and Ryazan lands. Thus, Northeast Russia became the main body of formation of Russian state. At the same time the fate of east and southlands was decided.

Thus, the old political structure, typical for which was the formation of independent principalities-lands, governed by different branches of Rurikovichi family, with minor vassal principalities within, stopped existing. Which entailed the following disintegration of the old Russian nationality, the ancestor of the three now existing east Slavonic nationalities, formed in IX-X. Russian (great Russian) nationality started to form on the territory of Northeast and Northwest Russia, Ukrainian and Belorussian nationalities started to form on the land composite to Lithuania and Poland.

Beside those visible consequences of the Invasion in social, economical and political spheres of ancient Russian society, the significant structural changes could be observed.

The scheme of the development of feudal relations in Russia in the premongolian period was the one natural to all European states: from the prevalence of state feudal forms in the early development to gradual strengthening of estate forms, slower than in Western Europe though. The process was delayed after the Invasion, as the temporary closing down of the state exploitation took place. It was connected with the need of researching for funds for paying the 'withdrawal'.

In the XIVth century the state-feudal forms of government prevailed in Russia, the relations of personal dependency of peasants on feudalists were forming; cities remained under the supervision of princes and boyars. Thus, the conditions for creating the united state were not sufficient. Therefore, the leading role in the formation of the Russian state played the external political factor - the necessity to withstand the Horde and the great Lithuanian principality. Due to that, wide sections of population - ruling class, townspeople and peasants were interested in centralization.

The 'anticipatory' character of the process of social and economical development conditioned the features of the state formed by the end of XV-XVI centuries, such as strong monarchical power, strict dependence of the ruling class on it, high degree of the first-hand producers exploitation. The latter became one of the reasons of formation of the serfdom. Accordingly, the Mongol-Tatar's Invasion had a significant impact on the development of the ancient Russian civilization.

Apart from the consequences of the Horde's policy, the structural deformations were observed, which led to the change of the type of feudal development in the country. Moscow monarchy wasn't directly created by the Mongol-Tatars, but regardless of the Horde and in the struggle against it. However, indirectly the consequences of the conquerors influence conditioned on many essential features of the state and its social order.

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