In XV century boyards completely lost the right to choose their lord by themselves. Now they were obliged to serve not apanage princes, but the Grand Duke of Moscow and swore allegiance to him. The number of boyards of Muscovy grew in the process of expansion of its territory.
XV century was a period of active development of landownership. The process of distribution and legal implementation of the systems of landed property started in the second half of XV century. Expansion of landlord class promoted strengthening of centralized Muscovy.
The first elements of legal enslaving of peasants appeared in the second half of XV century. The earliest princely official documents forbidding departure of peasants from their owners are dated the middle of XV century, however, at that time they had rather fragmentary character.
The first nation-wide legal act limiting freedom of peasants was the Code of Laws 1497 according to which peasants might leave their boyard or landowner only once a year. It was the first overt step towards establishment of serfdom in Russia. Obvious attempts to restrict freedom of peasants were also represented in the policy of financial enslavement. Having obtained a credit from the landowner or feudal lord a peasant could not abandon him until he repaid, and most often it took him many years and decades. The most insolvent debtors were named 'enslaved people' (for the first time they were mentioned in the end of XV century).
The Russian economy was intensively developing in XV century. Changes affected handicraft industry, building and agriculture. The basis of progress in agriculture was formed by transition to three-field system. Application of organic fertilizers became also a vital component of agricultural works.
Increase of labour productivity in agriculture resulted in increase of urban population and that , in its turn, promoted further development of craft and trade. No new technologies appeared in Russia in XV century except for fire-arms manufacture. Still, both quantitative and qualitative development of handicraft industry went on, specialization deepened, the number of craft outskirts and towns increased.