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Mongolian Invasion
Golden Horde: Prosperity and Fall
Northeast Russia in the second half of the XIIIth century
The Battle of the Neva.
Russian Lands after Baty's Invasion.
The Fight between Moscow and Tver. The rise of Moscow.
Northeast Russia after Mongolian Invasion
Social - Economical Development of Russia in the XIVth century.
The Consequences of Mongolian Invasion.
Russian Culture in the Period of the Mongol-Tatar Invasion.
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Russian Culture in the Period of the Mongol-Tatar Invasion.

The development of Russian culture didn't suffer such destructive changes as a whole, as those in the social - political field after the Invasion and the establishment of the Horde's dominion. However, the results of the Tatar raids were the great material and cultural losses. The growing dissociation of the Russian lands in the middle of XIII century adversely affected the development of the all-Russian cultural processes. Just after the establishment of the Horde domination, stone-building was temporarily stopped. The number of art crafts was lost (production of goods of niello and grain, porcelain, etc.) The production of manuscripts was reduced. The chroniclers' outlook was noticeably constricted. They almost lost interest to the events taking place in other principalities. At the same time the folklore art: epics, songs, legends, and warrior's stories, - was rapidly developing and became the very important genre. It reflected the people's conception of the past and of the surrounding world. The number of epics and legends of XIV century was dedicated to comprehension of the Mongolian Invasion: the story of the battle at Kalka, of the devastation of Ryazan, of Baty's invasion, the saga about Eupatii Kolovrat, and also about the youth- defender of Smolensk Merkurii, who saved the city from Baty's army by the will of the Blessed Virgin.

In conditions of reconstruction of the state unity in Northeast Russia over XIV - the beginning of XV century favorable prerequisites for cultural rise appeared, enriched by the growth of national self - consciousness. The battle of Koulikovo had aroused patriotic feelings in Russian people. The number of outstanding literature masterpieces was dedicated to the splendid victory of Russian warriors on Koulikovo field, such as the annalistic tale 'About the great battle on the Don', 'The word about the existence and the pass away of the great prince Dmitry Ivanovich', military tale 'Zadonshina' (over Don), presumably compiled by Sofony Ryazanets ad exemplum 'The word about Igor's regiment'. Another work of the anti-horde series was the historic tale about Shelkan Dudentievich, relating to the revolt in Tver in 1237, about devastation of Moscow in 1382 by Tochtamysh, the invasions of Tamerlan and khan Edigey. The idea of the national liberation and patriotism was also reflected in the masterpieces dedicated to the defence of northeast boarders of the Russian land: 'The existence of Dovmont' and 'The existence of Alexander Nevsky'. The entire number of existence narrations was dedicated to the princes, lost in the Horde. Such as 'The existence of Mikhail of Chernigov' and 'The existence of Mikhail of Tver', where the princes appear as the defenders of Orthodoxy and their Fatherland. Since the second half of XIII century chronicle making was gradually being renewed. Galich - Volyn principality, Novgorod, Rostov the Great, Ryazan, later (from 1250) Vladimir and since the end of the second half of the XIVth century Tver were remaining its main centers. Since the second half of XIV century the art of compiling chronicles and manuscripts experienced the significant rise. Moscow tradition of chronicle making became basic. Simonov, Andronikov and other monasteries were its centers. It has come to the present times as a part of Trinity chronicles and unlike other local chronicles presents the first code of all-Russian character since the times of Old Russia. Writing was developing along with literature. The characteristics of the level of literacy - official deeds - were found during archeological dig in the XX century in Novgorod. Gradually, together with the development of book learning the character of writing was changing, business documentation was spreading. Standard writing 'ustav' was replaced by quicker and more fluent form of writing 'poluustav'. And in the end of XIV century the development of cursive writing was started. Paper was little by little ousting the more expensive parchment.

Stone building was renewed in the end of XIII-XIV centuries. Such constructions as the church of Nicola on Lipna in Novgorod land (1292), the church of Fedor Stratilat on the Stream (1360) and the church of Spas on Ilyin street have lasted out till the present time. The most interesting building was the Faceted palace created in 1433 (the name appeared later). It was raised by the direction of archbishop Euphimy, the staunch opponent to Moscow, to emphasize Novgorod's sovereignty. In the time of Ivan Kalita 4 stone temples were built within the Moscow Cremlin: Uspensky cathedral (1326), the church of Ivan Lestvichnik (1329), the church of Spas on Bor (1330) and Arhangelsky cathedral (1333). Separate fragments of some of them have remained. The renovation of stone building in Moscow took place in the time of Dmitry Donskoi reign, when the white stone fortifications of the Cremlin were raised (1360). The monuments of stone architecture, which lasted out till the present time, featured with new technical quality. The example of this kind of monuments was Uspenski cathedral in Zvenigorod. Besides in Moscow, stone fortresses were raised around the number of monasteries, also in Izborsk, Oreshek, Yama, Koporye, Porhov.

The powerful rise of culture found the reflection in painting. The earliest memorials of monumental painting were the frescos in Snetogorsk monastery cathedral in Pskov (1313). The most significant painter of that time was the Byzantine master Pheophan Grek (about 1340-1361- after 1405). His frescos featured with extraordinary virtuosity, original monochrome performance in deep red-brown shades. Apart from frescos, he was ascribed the authorship of the Assumption portrayal on the back of the famous 'Donskaya Mother of God' icon in Blagoveshchensky cathedral in Moscow. The great icon 'Transfiguration' in Pereyaslavl-Zalessky also belonged to his brush. The national Russian school of icon painting appeared in Moscow on the verge of the XIV - XV centuries. The earliest period of the genius Russian painter Andrey Roublev work was reffered to that time.

The great spiritual pastors of that time metropolitan Aleksii (about 1310-1378) and Father Superior and the founder of the Trinity monastery by Moscow Sergii Radonezhsky (1314 (or 1319)-1392) played the great part in the development of Russian culture. The latter was the true inspirer of Russian people against the Horde dominion.

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