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Mongolian Invasion
Golden Horde: Prosperity and Fall
Northeast Russia in the second half of the XIIIth century
The Battle of the Neva.
Russian Lands after Baty's Invasion.
The Fight between Moscow and Tver. The rise of Moscow.
Northeast Russia after Mongolian Invasion
Social - Economical Development of Russia in the XIVth century.
The Consequences of Mongolian Invasion.
Russian Culture in the Period of the Mongol-Tatar Invasion.
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Russian Lands after Baty's Invasion.

Kiev principality was no longer the object of struggle for Russian princes. The Horde's khan assumed the right of appointing the prince of Kiev, which was first given to the great prince of Vladimir Yaroslav Vsevolodich (1243), and then to his son Alexander Nevsky (1249). Both, however, never settled in Kiev, preferring Vladimir-on-Klyazma as a residency.

Kiev had lost the status of nominal All-Russian capital, which was confirmed by departure of the All-Russian Mitropolitan to Vladimir. Till the middle of the XIVth century non-significant princes ruled Kiev, possibly from Olgovichi of Chernigov. Then in the 60s of the same century the possession of Kiev land passed on to the great Lithuanian principality.

Territorial division of Chernigov land was growing after the Invasion, minor principalities were being formed, with certain branch of Olgovichi dynasty ruling in each of them. Tatars systematically devastated the forest -steppe part of Chernigov land. For a while Bryansk principality, whose princes also held Chernigov's throne, became the strongest one among the others.

But at the end of the XIVth century Bryansk principality passed into the hands of princes of Smolensk, thus the possibitlity of integration of minor principalities of Chernigov land under the aegis of Bryansk was lost. Chernigov principality was never assigned to any of Olgovichi branch. And in the 60-70s of the XIVth century the great prince Olgerd of Lithuania took possession of the greater part of Chernigov land. Just a few principalities remained under control of Olgovichi, and became the object of enduring fight between Lithuania and Moscow.

Prince Daniel Romanovich (1201-1264) managed to form the big state in Galich-Volynsk land. In 1254 he accepted the king's title from the Pope's kuria. Galich-Volynsk principality almost avoided division and retained its power during the second half of the 13th- the beginning of the XIVth centuries. At the same time the external political position of Galich-Volynsk land was extremely unfavorable. It was surrounded by three confronting state formations of - Lithuania, Poland and Hungary and was at the same time the vassal of the Golden Horde.

As a result princes of Galich-Volynsk had on the one hand to participate in the Horde's campaigns against Lithuanian, Polish and Hungarian lands, and on the other hand to repulse the attacks of the Horde's khans. After the break of male descendant line of Daniel in the beginning of the 20s in the ХIVth century, Galich-Volynsk land was reigned by Boleslav Yuri, the heir by female descendant line. After his death (1340) Southeast Russia became the cockpit between Lithuania and Poland. As a result in the middle of the XIVth century Volyn became the part of Lithuanian principality, and Galich passed to Polish kingdom.

Smolensk principality, which wasn't immediately bordering the Golden Horde's territories, practically didn't experience any destruction by the Mongol- Tatars. However, weakened by the internal war of the 30s in the XIIIth century princes of Smolensk were considered minor political figures on the eve of Baty's invasion. Apparently, they acknowledged suzerainty of the great princes of Vladimir from the middle of the XIIIth century. The main foreign policy factor influencing the position of Smolensk principality was the pressure from Lithuania. For a long time princes of Smolensk managed to keep relative independence avoiding of taking sides of Lithuania or great Vladimir principality. Finally, it was placed under possession of the great Lithuanian principality.

In the second half of the XIIIth - XIVth centuries republican government was finally established in Novgorod land. At the same time Novgorod acknowledged the great prince of Vladimir, i.e. the supreme ruler of Northeast Russia, its suzerain. In the XIVth century Pskov land obtained complete independence with similar to Novgorod government form. At the same time Pskov citizens hesitated over a choice of whether taking the side of Lithuanian or great Vladimir princes.

Ryazan principality managed to keep relative independence in the second half of the XIIIth - XIVth century, though the princes of Ryazan admitted the seniority of the great princes of Vladimir (of the Moscow House). Small Murom principality didn't play an independent role, and in the end of the 14th century passed into possession of the princes of Moscow.

On the eve of Baty's invasion the pressure of Lithuania and German Order already weakened Polotsk land. In the end of the XIIIth - beginning of the XIVth centuries it finally became the part of the great Lithuanian principality. At the same time minor Turov - Pinsk land passed on to possession of Lithuania.

Pereyaslavsk principality was under control of the Horde after the Invasion, and then it was ruled by the representatives of Olgovichi. Then in the 60s of the XIVth century it became the part of the great Lithuanian principality together with Chernigov land.

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