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Mongolian Invasion
Golden Horde: Prosperity and Fall
Northeast Russia in the second half of the XIIIth century
The Battle of the Neva.
Russian Lands after Baty's Invasion.
The Fight between Moscow and Tver. The rise of Moscow.
Northeast Russia after Mongolian Invasion
Social - Economical Development of Russia in the XIVth century.
The Consequences of Mongolian Invasion.
Russian Culture in the Period of the Mongol-Tatar Invasion.
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The Fight between Moscow and Tver. The rise of Moscow.

By the beginning of the XIVth century Moscow and Tver principalities became the strongest in Northeast Russia. Daniel Alexandrovich (1263-1303), the son of Alexander Nevsky became the first prince of Moscow by his father's will. In the beginning of the 90s Daniel joined Mozhaisk to Rostov principality, and in the 1300 won Kolomna from Ryazan. Daniel 's son Yuri Danilovich (died in 1324) started the struggle over the great Vladimir principality against Mikhail Yaroslavich Tverskoi, who got the label for reigning from the Horde in1305.

The Moscow prince was supported by the all-Russian metropolitan Peter. In 1317 Yuri obtained the label for the grand principality throne from Uzbek khan. The year after Yuri's main enemy - Mikhail Tverskoi - was killed in the Horde. But in 1322 Yuri broke the khan's will, and held the collected to the Horde 'withdrawal'. As a punishment he was deprived of the right for reigning. And the label was given to Mikhail Yaroslavich's son - Dmitry Groznye Ochi (Severe Eyes). In 1325, when both princes of Moscow and Tver were in the Horde, Dmitry killed guilty of his father's death prince Yuri, for what he was executed by the khan in 1326. The great reigning was granted to Dmitry Tverskoi's brother Alexander (1326-1328).

Together with the great prince Alexander the horde's troop headed by the khan's relative Cholhan (he was called Shelkan in Russia) was sent to Russia. The riot of the hordeans had provoked the citizens' revolt, which was supported by the prince Alexander himself. The rebels beat the Cholhan's troop. New Moscow prince, the younger brother of Yuri Danilovich, Ivan Kalita made the best use of the circumstances. He headed the dragoon of the Horde against Tver. The land of Tver was devastated, Alexander Mikhailovich escaped to Pskov, and the great Vladimir principality was divided between Ivan Kalita and Alexander of Suzdal. After the death of the latter in 1332 Moscow princes almost constantly held the label for the great reigning.

Ivan Kalita managed to establish his authority in Novgorod, got the labels for appendage principalities with centers in Uglich, Galich and Beloozer. Apart from this, Ivan was buying the villages from other principalities, which were later becoming supporting points in 'collecting' Russian lands around Moscow.

His policy was continued by his sons: Semen the Proud (1340-1353) and Ivan the 2nd the Red (1353-1359). After the death of Ivan the 2nd the Red, his 9-year-old son Dmitry (1359-1389) became the prince of Moscow. At that time the label for reigning was in possession of the prince of Suzdal - Nizhni Novgorod Dmitry Konstantinovich. An intensive struggle was deployed between him and the group of Moscow boyars. The metropolitan of Moscow Aleksii, who was actually leading Moscow government, headed the party of Moscow, until Moscow won the victory in 1363.

The great prince Dmitry Ivanovich continued the policy of fortification of Moscow principality. In 1367 the Moscow Kremlin was raised of white stone. In 1371 Moscow inflicted a defeat on the great prince Oleg. The struggle against Tver was going on.

When in 1371 Mikhail Alexandrovich of Tver got the label for the great Vladimir principality, Dmitry Ivanovich refused to obey to the khan's will to give the throne. In 1375 Mikhail of Tver again got the label for Vladimir's throne. Then almost all the princes of Northeast Russia stood against him, supporting the prince of Moscow in his campaign against Tver. After the monthly siege the city of Tver capitulated. By the treaty concluded between Moscow and Tver princes, Mikhail acknowledged Dmitry his 'elder brother' and suzerain.

As a result of internal political struggle in northeast Russian lands Moscow principality obtained the primary position in 'collecting' of Russian lands and gained real power, able to resist to the Horde and Lithuania. Since 1374 Dmitry Ivanovich stopped paying the tribute to the Golden Horde.

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