Aleksey Badayev joined the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party party in 1904 and was elected to the 4th State Duma in October 1912. In 1912-1913, Badayev was the official publisher of the Pravda newspaper. In 1912 he became a member of the party's Standing Committee and in 1914 a member of the Russian Bureau of the party's Central Committee. Arrested for organizing strikes in St. Petersburg in 1914, Badayev was exiled to Siberia and returned to Petrograd after the downfall of the Romanovs monarchy on 19 Mar 1917.
In 1917-1920, Badayev held a number of positions in various Soviet organizations for food procurement. In 1920-1921, Badayev was the chairman of the Moscow Commune. He was elected candidate member (1922-1925) of the party Central Committee in April 1922 and full member (1925-1952) in December 1925. In 1921-1929, Badayev headed the Petrograd United Cooperative Association and the Leningrad Union of the Cooperative Associations. In 1931 he became the chairman of the Moscow Union of the Cooperative Associations. Badayev also served (Oct 1935 - Aug 1937) as a deputy to the people's commissar for food-processing industry of the USSR Anastas Mikoyan. In 1937-1938 Badayev was the people's commissar for food industry of the Russian SFSR. In 1938 he became deputy chairman of the Moscow Executive Council. As the All-Russian Executive Committee was reorganized as the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR in 1938, Badayev was elected the chairman of its Presidium at the first session on 19 Jul 1938. The 3rd session of the USSR 1st Supreme Soviet elected (31 May 1939) him deputy chairman of the Presidium. During World War II Badayev was made a member of the board of the Russian food industry ministry (1943) and later formally relieved of his duties as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR (4 Mar 1944).