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Alexey Mikhailovich

Romanov <b>Alexey</b> <b>Mikhailovich</b>Alexey Mikhailovich Romanov. Life time (1629 - 1676).

"Tsar is gifted with unusual talents, has fine qualities and rare virtues... subjects love him so much and revere him".

From memoirs of Lizek.

1645-1676 - the Tsar of the whole Russia. 1645 - accession to the throne (July 13). 1646 - coronation (September 28). Father: Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov, the tsar of the whole Russia. Mother: Evdokia Lukyanovna, daughter of Lukyan Stepanovich Streshnev. Wives: 1) Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya (since January 16, 1648); 2) Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina (since January 22, 1671). Children: from the marriage with Maria Miloslavskaya - six daughters and five sons, among whom Feodor III, Ivan V; from marriage with Natalia Naryshkina - Peter I.

Up to age of five, according to custom, he was surrounded by servants and nurses, and came under charge of Boris Morozov. At five he was learnt to read, and at the age of seven - to write. Contrary to his father he was quick-witted. According to reports of contemporaries, rare kindness shined in his blue eyes, and look approved and encouraged. Full and ruddy face was complacent and affable and simultaneously grandly and serious. Beside usual letters and compositions he tried to write verses, left a work about the Polish war. He liked to philosophize, and was a passionate hunter. Despite of evidently good nature, he was quick-tempered and frequently fought. At one of sessions of Duma he drove out his father-in-law Miloslavsky from the room by beating and kicks. However he quickly calmed down and was not vindictive.

The following title was given to Alexey Mikhailovich after coronation: Great Tsar and Grand Duke of the whole Russia, the Tsar of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, the Tsar of Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia, Pskov, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and etc., the Tsar and Grand Duke of Novgorod lowlands, Chernigov, Ryazan, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozersky, Udorsky and other northern lands, the Tsar of Iver grounds, Kartalina and Georgian kings and Kabardian lands, Cherkass and highlands princes and many other eastern, western and northern states and the grounds from time of many ancestors) and the successor to the throne, sovereign and owner. Romanov <b>Alexey</b> <b>Mikhailovich</b>

From contemporaries he received a nickname of 'the Quietest' in spite of the fact, that during the time of his reign there was not a year without distempers and wars. According to descriptions of well-known German scientist - Encyclopaedist of that time Adam Oleary (1599-1671): "Lands, provinces, cities make annual income of several millions to the treasury. The main trade city of Arkhangelsk one year gave imcredible amount of money, namely three hundred thousand roubles, i.e. six tons (600 000 thalers) of gold. Inns and pubs, taverns or "mug yards" bring to the Grand Duke, to the sole owner of them in the whole country, staggering amount of money. In each city there is a special house, where one receives vodka, other alcoholic drinks and beer, with transfer of money to tsar's treasury. In Novgorod there always were three taverns, each of which brings 2000 roubles a year, that gives general income of 12 000 reichsthalers. The tsar had a lot of magnificent grounds, which he farms out.

'Though income of Grand Duke is great, but expenses are high too. He should spent for the annual keeping of archers: there are 16 000 of them in Moscow, 600 in Kazanskaya oblast, they receive salaries and lands, and there are more than 100 000 of them in provinces. Wars, which he wages, cost him big money, for he should participate in a campaign with a numerous army and to give big salaries to German officers. He always pays the salaries on time, and some, who demand, receive salary in advance; therefore many people come to be at his service. A lot of money is spent on embassies of foreign sovereigns; sometimes they stay in Moscow for a long time, sometimes two, three and more embassies at the same time. While they are within the limits of Russia, the maintenance is free-of-charge. He has also a numerous court circle; alongside with his own magnificent table he, in the Kremlin and outside it, feeds daily up to thousand of people.
The Tsar has dinner as follows. When lunch time comes, they do not trumpet to table as at other courts, but a special person runs to the kitchen and cellar, he shouts as loud as possibemblemle: "food to Sovereign!' Food immediately appears. The Tsar sits down to table separately from the others. There are up to 50 (and even more) different dishes on the table, but not all of them are given to the Tsar: servants raise them a little and main table servant points; only favourite dishes of the Tsar appear on the table.

Among grand-ducal servants and courtiers, in particular among the Russian ones, the same phenomenon as at courts of the majority of sovereigns may be noticed. Here and there virtue and sin struggle with each other, and the latter frequently wins the first. The ones that have closer access to sovereign are much more irritable, self-seeking, more rough and more avaricious than the others. Therefore, to bring them over, it is necessary to treat them respectfully to welcome them with lowered head and lowered hand and frequently give them gifts, not so that they do you a favour but so that they don't do something bad." Alexey Mikhailovich died early - at 47. One of the reasons of his early senility is thought to be excessive, even by Moscow standards, obesity.

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