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The First Years of Peter's I Reign
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The Church and Abolition of Patriarchate.
Creation of the Regular Army and Navy
The Strelets' Rising of 1898
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Culture in the Epoch of Peter The Great
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Culture in the Epoch of Peter The Great

Development of trade and industry, creation of the regular Army and Fleet, introduction of the completely new structure of official-bureaucratic apparatus of absolutism and other reforms required total reconstruction of the educational system, training of the great number of skilled specialists.

In 1699 Cannon-founders' school was founded in Moscow, and in 1701 the 'School of Mathematic and Navigation Sciences' was opened in the building of Sukharevskaya Tower. It became the predecessor of the Navy Academy, established in 1715 in St. Petersburg. During Peter's reign Medicine School (1707) was opened, engineering, shipbuilding, navigators', miners' and crafts schools were established. In province Primary education were represented by three types of school: 46 diocesan schools, teaching clergymen; 42 counting schools, teaching local petty officials; garrison schools, teaching the children of soldiers. In addition to it in 1703-1715 a special general school - pastor E. Gluk's 'gymnasium', teaching mostly foreign languages - worked in Moscow.

Civil education required new teaching books. In 1703 'Arithmetic, i.e. the science of counting:' by L.F. Magnitsky was published, in this book letter numerals were changed with Arabic ones. Some time later Magnitsky and English mathematician A. Farwarson published 'Tables of logarithms and sinuses'. F.P. Polikarpov, G.G. Skornyakov-Pisarev, Ph. Prokopovich and others contributed a lot to the writing and publishing of new teaching books, textbooks and other educational supplies.

Simultaneously publishing started to develop very fast. In 1708 Peter I established new civil font instead of church Slavonic. New printing houses were opened in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities. More then 600 titles of books and other publications, a great number of which were translated from foreign languages, were published during Peter's reign.Development of typography triggered the beginning of organized book trade, and in 1714 The State Library was opened in St. Petersburg, which became the base for the Library of the Academy of Sciences.In December 1702 the first Russian newspaper 'Vedomosti' started being issued.

Great success was achieved in the field of geodesy, hydrography, cartography and prospecting of mineral wealth. Russian sailors-hydrographs did a lot to map the Asov, the Caspian, the Baltic and the White seas. The expeditions to Siberia, Far East and Middle Asia, accomplished by V. Atlasov, I. Evreinov, and F. Luzhin, D.G. Messershmidt, F. Benevin, I. Unkovsky and others, were marked by considerable geographic achievements. Three weeks before he died, in January 1725, Peter signed an edict about the first Kamchatka sea expedition under the leadership of V.I. Bering and A.L. Chirkov to find out where Kamchatka 'meets America'. This expedition lasted from 1725 to 1730.

Geological research was of a great scale at that time. During Peter's reign prospecting of coal was began near Moscow, in Donbass and Cusbass, the prospecting of oilfields near Ukhta and in Western Siberia. G.V. Gennin, V.N. Tatischev, Y.V. Bruce contributed considerably to development of mining and metallurgy.
Russian inventors gained considerable success.

In the first quarter of the XVIII century a number of valuable works on Russian history were written.
On the Peter's I initiative scientific collections were being collected. In 1718 the Decree issued, which obliged people to present 'human, as well as cattle, animal and bird freaks', as well as 'old inscriptions made on stones, iron or copper, or old uncommon weapon, dishes and everything, which is very old and extraordinary'. From this moment organization of domestic museum management studies began. In 1719 Kunst-camera (cabinet of curiosities) was opened for public, collection of 'rarities' of which became the base for the collections of the future museums: the Hermitage, Artillery Museum, Naval Museum and others.

As a result of achievements in the field of science and education, according to Peter's Decree (January 28, 1724) Academy of Sciences was established in St. Petersburg. (It was opened only after Peter's death in 1725). Academy of Sciences was not only the scientific center, but also the base for training scientists. Soon University and a gymnasium, attached to it, were opened.

The most important social, economic and politic events in Russian public life of that time were reflected in literature and social and political journalism. In 1717 in St. Petersburg the work concerning the reasons of the war with Sweden, prepared by vice-counselor P.P. Shafirov according to Peter's order, was published. It was the first in Russian history serious diplomatic treatise about the priorities of the foreign policy of the country. The works of outstanding natural-born scientist I.T. Pososhkov (1652-1726), and first of all his the most famous work 'Book about poorness and wealth', represented economic field.

Pheophan Prokopovich (1681-1736), one of the main supporters of the Church Reform, was one of the brilliant orators, writers, church and public figures of Peter's epoch. Another outstanding church figure was Metropolitan Stephan Yavorsky (1658-1722) - acting Patriarch in 1700-1721.

The attempts to creating Public theatres in Moscow and St. Petersburg were made at that time. The first Russian dramas were written then: 'Vladimir' (tragicomedy by Ph. Procopovich), 'The Glory of Russia' (the play by F. Zhukovsky) and others.

In the first quarter of the XVIII century in the field of graphic art civil painting, especially portraits, was developing. Among outstanding portraitists of the time were I.N. Nikitin (1690-1742), A.M. Matveyev (1701-1739), and among the masters of engraving was I. Adolsky. The works of engravers - A.F. Zubov, A.I. Rostovtsev and P. Pikar - depicted the architectural image of both Russian capitals.
The spreading of sculpture compositions, which was new for Russian culture, was expressed in creation of palace parks ensembles, for example the Great Cascade of Petergoff palace (architect J.B. Leblond)

During Peter's reign the transition to regular urban planning was realized, large architectural ensembles, more of civil than of religious character, were built. The most expressive example of urban planning of that time was building of St. Petersburg. The complex of buildings and constructions of Petropavlovskaya Fortress, Peter's I summer palace (architect D. Tresini), the building of Twelve Collegiums (architects D. Tresini and M.G. Zemtsov), Admiralty (architect I.K. Korobov) became the distinguished monuments of architecture. Sukharev and Menshikov Towers (architect I.P. Zarudny) were built in Moscow.

In Peter's epoch Russian traditional way of life underwent fundamental change. Rationalism and European high life customs step by step were taking place of patriarchal way of life. In 1718 Peter I issued an Edict about 'assemblies' with obligatory presence of women. Assemblies were held not only for entertainment, but also for business meetings. The Edict contained the detailed plan of organization of assemblies - dances, games etc. The use of foreign words, mostly French words, in speech was encouraged.

Peter's transformations in the sphere of culture, way of life and customs were of pronounced political character, and were conducted by force. The interests of the state, which was developed according to the strict monarch plan, were of the main Peter's concern when performing those reforms. The introduction of European customs by Decrees, tearing apart with ancient Russian cultural traditions was to emphasize the difference of principle of The Russian Empire - the great state of the European type, creation of which took only a quarter of the century.

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