Bondarenko Ilya Evgrafovich
Life time: 18.07.1870 - 21.07.1947
After graduation from Ufa grammar school in 1887, he entered higher institution where was under trusteeship of outstanding Moscow architect A.S.Kaminsky. In 1891, after several years of study he dropped out. His education he finished at the Construction branch of Polytechnic school in Zurich (Switzerland) in 1894. There he got acquainted with I.A. Morozov, well-known merchant, for who he made some ornamental patterns for fabrics.
From autumn of the same year he worked in construction office of the Moscow Merchant Society, supervised the construction of the building of the Spiritual consistory in Myasnitskaya street, which was being erected on V.G. Sretensky 's architectural design; besides he worked for A.E. Veber's architectural workshop, and in 1895-1896 - for Shekhtel's workshop.
From 1895 he scrupulously studied Russian art in the State Historical museum and P.I. Shukin's museum. From 1896 he joined Mamontov circle; in 1898-1899 cooperated with pottery plant "Abramtsevo". Most likely that exactly this circumstance promoted the calling of Bondarenko for designing of Russian Handicraft department pavilion at the World's fair in Paris (1899-1900). As is well known, this international exhibition of achievements of science, engineering, industry and culture became a powerful promoter of modernist style in architecture of the majority of the European countries including Russia.
Bright exotic national forms of the pavilions of the so-called Russian village in Paris, developed by Bondarenko together with artist K.A. Korovin, became the beginning of Neo-Russian style - national modification of a new architectural direction. Pavilions reflected rich graphic and decorative impressions, which Bondarenko got during travel over old Russian cities of the Volga region at the end of the 1890s and villages of the Russian North. In the further creativity of the architect this language of architectural forms received the greatest development.
In 1900-1905 Bondarenko was an architect at Ivera Community of the Red Cross. In 1902 Bondarenko actively participated in well-known Moscow exhibition of Architectural and art industry of New style, which became a reference point in wide popularization of modernist style in the building up of Moscow. He presented subjects of furniture, wooden carved products and picturesque frieze at this exhibition.
Bondarenko was the author of the first and several subsequent Old Believers' temples in Moscow and suburbs, which were erected after the Manifest of 1905 and which laid the foundation for the newest stage of Old Believers' temple construction, which made great contribution to the formation of the city look in 1900-1910. The most outstanding among them were the Moscow temples in Tokmakov and Maly Gavrikov lanes, and the temple in Bogorodsk. The basic architectural touch of the architect, comprising his hallmark: graphic laconism and expressiveness, attention to outline of a building, frequent use of front majolica or picturesque panels was clearly expressed in them.
In his works Bondarenko freely combined forms, genetically connected with the old Russian architecture, but architecture strongly stylized and exaggerated. He was deeply captivated by national architectural plastics of Pskov and Novgorod, but those plastics are greatly influenced by ideas of Mamontov circle. His works in neo-Russian style were logical continuation of the principles shown back in 1881-1882 by V.M. Vasnetsov and V.D. Polenov in Abramtsevo church. It is not accidental that almost all temples by Bondarenko were decorated with ceramics of plant "Abramtsevo", that plant played the leading decorative role.
Bondarenko was an active member of the Imperial Moscow Archeological Society, a member of МАS from 1913, a member of the International congress of architects at МАS, the chairman of the Commission on arrangement of the Historical exhibition of architecture and art industry at V All-Russia congress of architects in Moscow, the secretary of this professional forum.
Being a talented graphic artist, Bondrenko worked a lot in sphere of applied graphic arts and industrial design: carried out sketches of wall calendars covers, posters of Russian music fans society, subjects of applied art, furniture. He took part in decoration of the Private Russian opera, carried out scenery on M.A. Vrubel's sketches, took a great interest in writing - in the 1889-1890s wrote stories, collected books on art, history of Moscow and ancient engravings.B
ondarenko was a well-educated architect, an expert on Moscow empire style, passion for which had begun in 1904 with publication of some articles on Moscow classicism. He was the organizer of "Fans of arts circle", which was founded for study of "empire style" epoch (1908), the organizer of "Moscow in epoch of Patriotic war" department at an anniversary exhibition in memory of war of 1812. Bondarenko was one of the founders of "Historical exhibition of architecture" (1913), where, discovered by him in History museum, original drawings by D.Dzhilyardi and A. Grigoriyev were exhibited for the first time. The author of many historical and architectural researches, including the first monography about creative works of architect M.F. Kazakov in commemoration of 100th anniversary of his death.
The most significant part of Bondarenko's architectural heritage falls on the pre-revolutionary period, after 1917 he stepped aside from construction activity, turning to organizing and historical-architectural work. After the revolution he worked in the Board on protection of art and olden time monuments, surveyed monuments of Upper and Middle Volga regions. In 1919 - 1921 he was the director of Administration of art museums in Ufa, organized there the State Art museum with library and Ufa polytechnic. After returning to Moscow he was a member of Children committee of VTSIK (till 1923), a member of the governmental commission on restoration of Leningrad (1924-1926), the expert of Supreme board of arbitration of Labour and Defense Council (1924-1926).
At the end of the 1920s - in the beginning of the 1930s Bondarenko again returned to active architectural activity, he developed and carried out a lot of reconstructions of museum buildings and institutions of Moscow and some other cities. He worked as the architect of the State Historical museum (1926-1927), was a member of MUNI of the Department of improvement of Moscow Soviet (1928-1930), an expert of Civil Therapy Institute (1931-1933), an expert of Branch of Designing and lay-out of Moscow Soviet (1934-1937), the chief architect of Construction department of Mosenergo (1935-1939).
From 1940 he practically completely switched over to scientific researches, though in 1943 - 1944 he occupied the post of chief architect of Vagankovskoye and Armenian cemeteries; from 1942 to 1946 he read about 100 lectures in hospitals, they were mainly devoted to the history of Moscow architecture; he was occasionally engaged in various consultations, in 1945-1946 Bondarenko participated in restoration of Putevoy palace in Kalinin (Tver now).
In contrast to the majority of architects of his time, he wrote in the 1930s memoirs, in which art and cultural life of Moscow of the beginning of the XXth century was reflected. It is the unique literary monument of the epoch, which allows not only to see the process of architectural and stylistic development of city by the eyes of the contemporary, who took active part in it, but also to grow accustomed to problems and interests of the professional environment, to learn names of its leaders and outsiders.