In the beginning of the XIX century, the system of national education was reconstructed in the basis of transformations approved in 1803. The situation concerning the structure of educational institutions. The European part of the country was divided into six educational districts with four categories of educational institutions: church-parish schools, district schools for the townspeople, merchants and bourgeois, grammar school in the provincial cities and universities for noblemen. The maintenance of the schools was assigned to city controls, landowners and state peasants. It was planned to establish continuity in the system of education. But in 1804 the interdiction to accept children of serfs in grammar school followed.
In 1802 was formed the Derptsky university. In 1804 new universities in Kazan, Kharkov and Vilno appeared. In April 1804, the Pedagogical institute of St. Petersburg (in 1819 was transformed into university) opened. The university charter (1804) gave autonomy to the Russian universities; they became the centers of training of the pedagogical staff and methodical work in educational district.
In 1811 in the Tsar's Village, under M.M.Speransky's initiative, lyceum, privilege-exclusive closed educational institution for noblemen, was opened. Among its first graduates were A.S.Pushkin, I.I.Pushchin, A.A.Delvig, A.M.Gorchakov, V.K.Kyuhelbek-ker etc. Lyceums appeared in Yaroslavl, Nezhin, and Odessa.
During the period of the Arakcheevshina, the reaction also fell upon the sphere of education. In 1817, the ministry of national education was transformed into the Ministry of spiritual affairs and national education; all affairs concerning creeds, apart from the Spiritual Court, joined it, coming from the Synod.
Being at the head of the Ministry of Synod prince A.N.Golitsyn, the "servile soul" and "education ruiner", (A.S.Pushkin's characteristic), proposed to Alexander I to close all the universities, except the Moscow one. The emperor gave the instruction not to close them, but "to correct them", and set religious principles at the basis of the education. In the course of "correction" doubled "unreliable" and "ill-intentioned" professors, 'bad' books were withdrawn, the disastrous materialism was withdrawn from teaching, theological faculties were established, for students was introduced the barracks discipline. A real chaos in the Kazan university was initiated by the member of the central administrative Board of schools, M.L.Magnitsky, "ministry of eclipse" (by N.M.Karamzin's expression). With his participation the new instruction for the universities (1820), in which the main task was the education, convinced the students in the firmness and the divine origin of the monarchic authority. In 1821 the Petersburg university "was cleared".