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Coming to the Power of Nikolay II
The Revolution Movement and the Creation of Parties
Socio-Economical Development of Russia
The First Russian Revolution 1905-1907
The State Parliament and its Functions
P.A. Stolypin and the Attempts of Reforms
The Internal Political Crisis during World War l.
The February Revolution. Dethronement of Autocracy.
The Russian Culture at the close of IX and the beginning of XX century.
The Foreign Policy of Russia during the Reign of Nicolay II.
The Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905.
The Character of the International Relations in 1906-1914.
World War I
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The First Russian Revolution 1905-1907

The political crisis due to the internal contradictions and the critical situation in Russia which was in war with Japan was the reason of the problems, which reflected in 'the bloody Sunday' on January 9, 1905 in Petersburg, when the tsar's army killed the workers participated in a pacific demonstration organized by the priest of the prison of Petersburg Gregory Gapon (1870-1906).

The provocative activities of Gapon leaded to the beginning of the revolution (111 000 people were participating). Gapon proposed to go as a pacific demonstration to the Winter Palace to tell the tsar about the needs of workers. Gapon warned Nikolay II and the Minister of internal affairs about the demonstration; but the government immediately prepared for it. Nikolay II went to Petersburg and at that time 30000 soldiers were brought to the capital. On January 9 when the workers, their wives and children arrived at the Palace the police started shooting them. During the 'bloody Sunday' there were killed more than 1000 and injured 2000 people.

The news about these events in the capital expanded immediately to all the other parts of the country, and people started strikes. In strikes were involved 440000 people. In May 1905 started the bunt of Ivano-Boznesensky textile workers; there was created a council of 151 people. The development of the peasants movement was followed by the creation on the 31st of July and the 1st of August 1905 of the Peasants Union. Distempers and opened oppositions were taking place in the marine army. The biggest event of the first Russian revolution was armed revolt at "Potemkin Tavrichesky" ship.

The 14th of October 1905 marine soldiers brought the boat to Odessa where was taking place a general strike. But the marine soldiers didn't dare to stop the workers. After that unsuccessful attempt to get the soldiers to their side, 'Potemkin' went to Rumania and gave in to the government.

The greatest moment of the revolutionary movement came in the end of 1905. Beginning in Moscow in October the strike expanded all over the country: on the 12th and the18th of October almost 2000000 people were striking in several areas of the industry. During the October revolution Councils of workers appeared, sometimes - Councils of farmer deputies (55), which became parallel organ of power. The most important was Petersburg (president G.S.Khrustalev-Nosar, and then L.D.Trotsky) and Moscow Councils. The Moscow Council called to the beginning of military strike on the 7th of December 1905. The fights (December armored revolt) continued till the 19th of December.

The wideness of the workers movement in 1905 leaded to the strengthening of the revolution movement in the army and fleet. In October-November of 1905 the distempers of soldiers were taking place in Kharkov, Kiev, Tashkent, Warsaw and in many other cities. Revolts among the seamen of Kronstadt and Black sea fleet. The main basis of the revolution was 'Ochakov" cruiser with the raised red flag. 12 armed ships and 4 000 soldiers were participating in the armed opposition with the regular forces but their actions were just to defend themselves. The 15th and the 16th of November the opposition was stopped and at the beginning of 1906 its leaders (P.P.Smidt, A.I.Gladkov, I.G.Antonenko and C.P.Chastnik) were assassinated.

The tsar's government was obliged to do many concessions. Nikolay II on the 18th of February 1905 designed A.G.Bulygin to be the ministry of internal affairs, who was supposed to prepare the beginning of reforms. Then started the activation of the 'Bulygin's Duma'; but the elections didn't take place.

In the middle of October the situation in the country was so explosive that the government was loosing the control on the situation. Everywhere were meetings and demonstrations asking for constitution. The government had no forces to overcome the revolutionary movement.

The end of the monarchy was close, when S.U.Vitte and Nikolay Nikolaevich convinced the tsar to make concessions. The 17th of October 1905 was published the basis of the civil freedom: the immunity of the personality, freedom of conscience, word, publication, meetings and the parliament.

The manifest caused dissension in the revolution movement. The manifest gave to people a constitutional illusion; as results the revolutionary movement started loosing its activity and importance.
At the same time were acting monarch reaction forces. The 18th of October and the following days in more than 100 towns took place the massacre of the revolution movement and Jews. During the first month of the constitutional liberties more than 4 000 of people were killed and 10 000 who were using the support of the government.
After the end of the armed opposition in Moscow the revolution wave started to reduce. In 1906-1907 were continuing demonstrations, strikes of the peasants and the marine soldiers. But the government, using cruel repressions took the control over the country again .

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