State-political development. The Constitution of the Russian Federation
Since the end of 1993 the renovated Russian state has entered a new phase of development. Accepted on December 12, 1993 at the All-Russia referendum, the fifth in the history of the country, Constitution of the Russian Federation has proclaimed formation of new system of state-political system, put an end to the Soviet period of Russian history.
Full authority in the Russian Federation belongs to the President and bodies of legislative (two-chamber parliament - Federal Assembly), executive (Government of the Russian Federation) and the judicial authority, which work independently. The system of governing bodies of subjects of the Federation is established by them independently, according to bases of constitutional structure of Russia. President as the head of the state is the guarantor of Constitution of Russian Federation, rights and freedom of a person and a citizen. He determines the basic directions of internal and foreign policy of the state; he is the Supreme Commander-in-chief of Armed forces of Russia.
The president of the Russian Federation is elected for the period of 4 years. His impeachment, though stipulated in the Constitution, is rather difficult to carry out, as the concrete mechanism of this procedure has not been worked through. At the same time, the fact of stipulating of impeachment possibility in the Constitution does not allow to make authority of the President absolute.
The lower chamber of Federal Assembly - the State Duma consists of 450 deputies elected for the term of 4 years.
The Council of Federation - the upper chamber of parliament - is formed by representatives of subjects of Federation (one from legislative and one from executive authority).
For the first time in the Russian history the Constitutional Chapter contains guarantees of rights and freedoms of a person, mechanism of their protection. In the Constitution the freedom of occupation is proclaimed, a person may enter into labour disputes. A person, his rights and freedom are the supreme value, and the recognition, observance and protection of rights and freedoms of a citizen is a duty of the state.
Influence of the Federal Assembly on executive authority headed by the President is determined, first of all, by fixed in the Constitution obligatory approval by its both chambers of the state budget and confirmation of nominees to the supreme state posts represented by the President. However during 1994-1997 the real political impact and influence of the lower chamber of the Russian parliament was much wider than stated in the Constitution.
President and his nearest advisers began to pay an increasing attention to problems of strengthening of national unity and increase of the role of federal structures in the system of public administration. Within the framework of realization of the given course, the President of Russia in February 1994 put forward the initiative on achievement of public consent, the first step to which was the realization of amnesty.
The following step was the preparation and signing on April 28, 1994 of Public Consent Pact. Its participants became representatives of federal authorities, subjects of the Federation, heads of political parties, social movements and other organizations.
At the same time the events, happening after adoption of Russian Constitution, show, that the created legal basis of Russian statehood is still far from solving all problems standing in its way of development. In this connection, as a means of resolution of conflicts between interests of federal and regional authorities, there appeared a necessity of development and signing of bilateral treaties on differentiation of duties and mutual delegation of authority between federal bodies of Russian government and authorities of federal subjects.
The first document of such kind became the pact signed on February 15, 1994 between federal authorities and the Tatarstan Republic. Such a form of strengthening of federal relations and development of principles of federalism of the Russian statehood was recognized as optimal. Therefore, following the example of the Tatarstan Republic, similar pacts were and are being signed with all other subjects of Federation.