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Coming to the Power of Nikolay II
The Revolution Movement and the Creation of Parties
Socio-Economical Development of Russia
The First Russian Revolution 1905-1907
The State Parliament and its Functions
P.A. Stolypin and the Attempts of Reforms
The Internal Political Crisis during World War l.
The February Revolution. Dethronement of Autocracy.
The Russian Culture at the close of IX and the beginning of XX century.
The Foreign Policy of Russia during the Reign of Nicolay II.
The Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905.
The Character of the International Relations in 1906-1914.
World War I
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The Internal Political Crisis during World War l.

Military set-backs increased existing internal political problems in the Russian society. There appeared antigovernmental actions and antiwar movement.By the end of May 1915 the political crisis in the country became evident.Criticizing actions of the government, bourgeoisie in opposition launched the idea of mobilizing of the industry for the war.
At the beginning of the war the patriotic ideas gave birth to the creation of the All-Russian national union for help to wounded men and the All-Russian union of cities. Later these organizations united in 'Zemgor', the main subsistence committee that took control of mobilization of the small-scale and medium industry for provision of the army with munitions and weapons. In May 1915 the session of the representatives of the industry and commerce made a decision to create military-industrial committees all over the country in order to mobilize the private industry for performance of military orders.
The military-industrial committees, which included outstanding industrialists, bankers and representatives of the industrial intelligentsia, founded almost 120 private plants and workshops for needs of the front.The government trying to keep the initiative of economical mobilization created in August 17, 1915 the Special defence council and some other subordinate councils (for supply of fuel, food, etc.) under the presidency of Ministers and accountable only to Tsar. They included government dignitaries, representatives of the military-industrial committees and intelligentsia.
The increasing political crisis generated the need to include representatives of the opposition bourgeoisie into the government and to discharge most discredited ministers. In June 1915 Nicolay II was forced to dismiss the minister of internal affairs N.A Maklakov, the minister of Justice I.N.Cheglovitch and the minister of defense V.A. Sukhomlinov.But at the head of the Council of ministers still was 75-year-old Goremykin appointed in January 1914.
The 4th session of the State Duma took place on the 19th of July during which Octobrists and Labourists put a question on creation of a responsible to Duma government, and at the beginning of August Constitutional Democrats actively worked to create an inter-party bloc. The progressive bloc was registered in August 12 as a legal parliamentary and opposition group, the principal aim of which was formation of a government of 'public credit'. Representatives of the opposition bourgeoisie parties were supposed to take up the most important posts in this government.
However, Nicolay's II joining the high command was considered as the end of instability of the power, refusal to the parliamentary majority to create 'ministry of credit', dismissal of Goremykin and removal of ministers who supported the Progressive bloc, and finally dissolution of the State Duma after its consideration of some war bills. On the 3rd of September, the chairman of the State Duma Rodzyanko received the tsar's decree of dissolution till November 1915.
During this period Gregory Rasputin greatly influenced State affairs as he enjoyed tsarina's confidence.Alexandra Fedorovna from the moment of departure of Nicolay II till February was actively involved in the state affairs following advice of the 'Old man'. Gradually Rasputin's image became the symbol of the total decomposition of the tsarist regime.
Rasputin's assassination on the night of the 17th of December, 1916 by a group of conspirators, which included prince F.F.Yusupov, leader of the Black hundreds V.M. Purishkevich, the great prince Dimitry Pavlovich, Doctor Lazovert, was accepted by the public well. However, it did not change the character of the government's policy. More and more people came to the conclusion that the problem was not in Rasputin's regime but in the Emperor.
Besides, the external sign of the decomposition of the autocracy was so called 'Ministerial reshuffle'. In a short term there changed 4 chairmen of the Council of Ministers ( I.L.Goremykin from the 30th of January 1914, B.V. Sturmer from the 20th of January 1916 , A.F. Trepov from the 10th of November 1916 and N.D.Golitsyn from the 27th of December 1916 till the 27th of February 1917) and none of them didn't show any outstanding abilities. At the same time, 6 ministers changed their post in the ministry of internal affairs, 4 ministers of justice, 4 ministers of defence. So 'Ministerial reshuffle' even more increased disorganization of the power, created growing instability of the political course and boosted the expansion of hearsays concerning conspiracy and treason in the government.
The growth of displeasure in the country was boosted by economical problems still increasing in the course of the everlasting war. The government tried to cover all the war costs through money emission that leaded to the inflation and rapid worsening of the population living standard.

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