Council of Federation
The Federation Council is the upper chamber of the Federal Assembly - the Parliament of the Russian Federation, first time elected on December 12, 1993 simultaneously with the adoption of the new Constitution.
The current Federation Council according to the Federal law "On Formation Procedure of the Federation Council of the Russian Federation Federal Assembly", came into force on December 13, 1995, was formed on January 23, 1996 and consists of the regions heads of executive and legislative powers according to the post. According to the new Federal law "On Formation Procedure of Federation Council of the Russian Federation Federal Assembly", which came into force on August 8, 2000 the heads of regions will be replaced by the representatives of the executive and legislative bodies by January 1, 2002.
The basic powers of Council of Federation are listed in article 102 of the Constitution. The Federation Council accepts decisions by the simple majority of voices from the general number of deputies (except for cases when the Constitution provides higher quorum).
The Federation Council may approve or reject the federal law accepted by the State Duma, the federal constitutional law, the law on amendments to the Constitution (article 105, 108 of the Constitution). The federal law may be approved by the simple majority of voices or by not considering it within 14-day term (article 105) - however this mechanism may not be applied, if the law is in the list of the laws subject to obligatory consideration in the Federation Council - on questions of the federal budget; federal taxes and tax collections; financial, currency, credit, customs regulation, monetary issue; ratifications and denouncement of the international contracts; the status and protection of the state frontier, war and peace (article 106). The President of the Russian Federation signs the laws approved by the Federation Council.
- dismissal of the President of the Russian Federation (two thirds of voices);
- appointment of judges to the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the High Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation; confirmation of the Presidium of the Supreme Court members;
- appointment and dismissal of the General public prosecutor of the Russian Federation, appointment of the General public prosecutor deputies;
- appointment of the two representatives of the Federation Council in the National Bank Council (NBC);
- appointment and dismissal of the Vice-President of Accounting Chamber and half of its auditors.
By the constitution of the Russian Federation (article 95) it is established that "Each subject of the Russian Federation has two of its representatives in the Federation Council: one from the representative body and one from the executive body of the government". At the same time, by the transitive positions of the Constitution it is established that "the Federation Council of the first convocation and the State Duma of the first convocation are elected for the period of two years".
The terms of the Chamber presidency - the Chairman, his deputies, committees chairmen and their deputies - are adhered to re-elections in the regions by the amendments to the Federation Council Regulations of November 11, 1999, before that the term of their powers was not limited.
The State Duma
The State Duma is the lower chamber of the Federal Assembly - the Parliament of the Russian Federation, first time elected on December 12, 1993. Simultaneously the new Constitution adoption referendum was conducted.
Duma is elected for four years, but may be prematurely dismissed by the President in the cases stipulated by the Constitution.
The basic powers of the State Duma are listed in article 103 of the Constitution. Duma of the first convocation refused to accept the law on her succession to the Congress of People's Deputies and followed the path of gradual restoration of the personnel and other powers in the process of the acceptance of the federal laws based on the new Constitution.
Duma accepts decrees by the simple majority of voices (except for cases when the Constitution provides higher quorum).
- the State Duma passes federal laws, federal constitutional laws and laws on amendments to the Constitution, which are inure after Federation Council approval, signing by the President and publishing. Federal laws are accepted by the simple majority of voices. Duma overcomes the veto of the Federation Council and the President's veto; approves federal constitutional laws and laws on amendments to the Constitution with two thirds (300 voices).
- impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation which leads to his dismissal (two thirds of voices);
- agreement with the President's decision to appoint the Prime Minister of Russian Federation;
- expression of confidence to the Government of the Russian Federation;
- appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central bank of the Russian Federation; appointment of members of the Board of directors of the Central bank (12 persons), two representatives of the State Duma in the National Bank Council (NBC) and other members of NBС (within the limits of 6 persons on presentation by the Chairman of the Central Bank);
- appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Accounting Chamber and half of its auditors.