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Internal Struggle

Vladimir Svyatoslavich's reigning was the period of political stability in Russia when there was a structure of uniform early feudal state and the impact of Pechenegs on southern borders was neutralized. After Vladimir's death in 1015 fierce struggle for authority between his successors began. Turovsky prince Svyatopolk grasped the Kiev throne and organized perfidious murder of his brothers Boris, Gleb and Svyatoslav.

In 1016 against Svyatopolk, nicknamed the Damned, Yaroslav Vladimirovich reigning in Novgorod with the army from Novgoroders and hired Varyags set out. In the battle at Lubech Yaroslav won. Svyatopolk ran to Poland to his father-in-law - Polish king Boleslav the Brave. In 1018 Boleslav acted in the campaign against Russia, won Yaroslav, occupied Kiev and returned the throne to Svyatopolk.

Then he came back to Poland, having reserved the western suburbs of the Russian land. Yaroslav, who ran after the battle to Novgorod, got support from Novgoroders again, that gave means for hiring of a new Varyag team, and he again set out to Kiev. This time Svyatopolk, loosing the Polish help, ran from Kiev not accepting the fight and in 1019 approached to the capital this time with Pechenegi forces. Yaroslav's army won, Svyatopolk ran to the western borders of Russia and died on the road.

But the internal struggle didn't terminate. In 1021 Yaroslav was at war with nepnep Bryachislav Izyaslavich, reigning in Polotsk. He applied for Novgorod, but sufferred defeat and was compelled to conclude the world with the Kiev prince. Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich acted in 1024 against Yaroslav. Shortly before it Mstislav strengthened the princedom, having subordinated North Caucasian tribe of Kasogi: he won a duel with Kasogi prince Rededya and received his ground at the right of the winner; soldiers of Rededya joined Mstislav's team.

Yaroslav was in the Rostov land when Mstislav set out. Having found out about the actions of the brother, he employed Varyag team led by Yakun and set to the south. The battle between the brothers took place at Listven, Yaroslav engaged into the action Yakun's team, and his own team left in reserve. Finally, brothers concluded the contract according to which Mstislav got the left bank of Dnepr with capital in Chernigov. Only after Mstislav's death in 1036 Yaroslav became the "autocracy" of Russian ground.

In 1037 there was the last large battle with Pechenegs: they were crushed near Kiev and after that they did not represent any danger to Russia.

In 1066 there was Internal war between Yaroslavichi and their cousin nephew Polotsk prince Vseslav Bryachislavich. Finally, Vseslav was perfidiously seized during negotiations and prisoned in Kiev. In 1068 in the large campaign to Russia were set Polovtsy (Kipchaks, Kumans) - the Turkic nomadic ethnos which replaced Pechenegs and Turcs in the Black Sea steppes. Three of Yaroslavichi suffered defeat in the battle at the Alta River and ran to their cities.

Vseslav had been at authority for 7 months, and the younger Yaroslavichi at this time recognized his leadership. Svyatoslav defeated a significant part of Polovtsy forces and took a prisoner Sharukan-khan. In the spring of 1069 Izyaslav with the help of the Polish armies returned to the Kiev throne, having compelled Vseslav to run to Polotsk.

In 1078 in political strike in Russia entered as independent princes representatives of the following generation - grandsons of Jaroslav. Tmutarakan prince Roman Svyatoslavich together with Polovtsy army acted in 1079 against Vsevolod. The Kiev prince managed to conclude the world with Polovtsy then they killed Roman. Oleg was seized by the agents of Byzantium and sent into exile to Rhodes Island in the Aegean sea. Therefrom he returned and became Tmutarakan Prince in 1083.

In 1095 Vladimir destroyed groups of khans Itlar and Kytyn troops at Pereyaslavl. In 1096, the horde of Tugorkan was crushed, and he (father-in-law of Svyatopolk) was killed. Oleg in the same year was expelled from Chernigov and he transferred the intestine war to the northeast of Russia. Here, near Murom, in the battle with him son of Vladimir Monomakh - Izyaslav was killed, but the senior brother Mstislav, prince of Novgorod, defeated Oleg in the Rostov volost after that he was compelled to go on negotiations with cousins Svyatopolk and Vladimir.

In 1097 at the congress of princes in Lubech the agreement was made, according to which Svyatopolk, Vladimir and Oleg with brothers Davyd and Yaroslav Svyatoslavich should own 'otchins' - territories which at the will of Yaroslav the Wise belonged to their fathers Izyaslav, Vsevolod and Svyatoslav (with the centres accordingly in Kiev, Pereyaslavl and Chernigov). Davyd Igorevich, grandson of Yaroslav, received Vladimir-Volynsky, and the grandsons of senior son Vladimir - Volodar and Vasilko - accordingly Peremyshl and Terebovl (Southwest Russia). The Princes agreed upon joint actions on protection of Russia. But at once after the congress a new bloody intestine war inflamed.

Davyd Igorevich in arrangement with Svyatopolk Izyaslavich captured in Kiev Vasilek Rostislavich Terebovlsky and blinded him. After that he tried to capture Vasilek's volost, but suffered defeat from his brother Volodar and was compelled to release the captive. In the meantime Vladimir Monomakh with Oleg and Davyd Svyatoslavich acted against Svyatopolk. So that he was compelled to go in campaign against Davyd Igorevich and to expel him from the Vladimir-Volynsky princedom.

In the battle he suffered defeat In the battle at Peremyshl (1099) Polovtsy applied characteristic reception to nomads of 'false deviation'. Surrounded army of Kalman was defeated and ran in disorder, with huge losses. Attempt of Svyatopolk to secure Vladimir-Volynsky failed also.

In 1100 princely congress in Uvetichi, that brought the result to three-year war, was held. Davyd Igorevich as the initiator of intestine war was deprived of Vladimir-Volynsky and put on reigning in Buzhsk (less significant city of the Western Russia).

The next years are marked by the absence of intestine wars and the organization by Vladimir Monomakh and Svyatopolk Izyaslavich of several successful campaigns in Polovetsky steppe with participation of many Russian princes in 1103, 1107 and 1111; khans Sharukan (heading a campaign to Russia in 1068), Bonyak, Urusoba, Sutra were defeated. In 1113 Kiev prince Svyatopolk Izyaslavich died and revolt flashed against administration of died prince and usurers in Kiev.

In these conditions the Kiev nobility invited Vladimir Monomakh to reigning. Vladimir, becoming a prince in Kiev, issued a number of laws which took into account the requirements of the rebellions; on his division the new legal arch was created - the so-called 'Prostrannaya' edition of 'the Russian Pravda'. In this monument the social changes happened in Russia in the second half of XI - the beginning of XII reflect. 'The Prostrannaya Pravda' fixed the existence of the seigniorial property; special sections were devoted to 'zakups' - new category of the dependent population, and also lackeys. And changes were brought in a number of existing before norms.

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