For years of war formation of numerous committees, managements, central boards and soviets at the government resulted in sharp swelling of the state machinery, therefore in 1946-1947 the Soviet of Ministers undertook a number of attempts to suspend this process, having reduced quantity of establishments and having forbidden creation of new ones.For daily government of subordinated establishments and organizations in 1944 the SNK Bureau of the USSR was formed, transformed in March 1953 into the Presidium of the Soviet of Ministers. The bureau became the successor of the Economic council at the SNK of the USSR.
The central branch state bodies were transformed in 1946 from Narkomats ministries headed by the members of the government. They carried out executive and administrative activity, supervised separate branches of the national economy and culture.After war the amount and staffs of departments immensely increased. If in 1945 there existed 25 industrial Narkomats, in 1947 it was totaled 34 ministries in this sphere.
For the post-war period numerous reorganization, merges, divisions of the ministries, mainly industrial were characteristic. It was caused by specialization of the industry, which conducted to breaking up into smaller units of the ministries and increase of their device. The governing machinery, which was completely torn off manufacture, grew for 1928-1955 in the industry from 300 thousand to 2300 thousand people, e.g. almost in 7 times. And number of industrial workers for this time increased in 4,5 times.
In March 1953 general reorganization of the allied ministries was carried out: instead of 24 - 11 integrated departments remained, with their staffs reduced.Alongside with the ministries there were planned and supplying bodies.
During the Great Patriotic war the system of legal proceedings fixed in the Constitution, and even judiciary practice in the end of 30s, were actually cancelled. Bodies of justice during the years of war became the public national courts and military courts, where the principle of election of judges was openly replaced by their assignment.After the end of war many extraordinary judicial and administrative measures were cancelled. For example, with the decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of May 25, 1947 death penalty was cancelled. Appointment of judges, judicial assessors by election was again introduced, the quantity of tribunals, which continued existing after the war in the army, fleet, in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, МGB and partly in transport, was reduced.
The Supreme court was elected by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for the period of 5 years (the first post-war elections took place in 1946). Other courts were elected, as proclaimed by the Basic Law, by the all-working citizens of the USSR for 3 years and were responsible and accountable to higher bodies. Courts of all levels were in practice obedient bodies of the administrative - repressive machinery; verdicts passed by them were beforehand coordinated and predetermined.
In 1945-1946 the activity of the prosecution supervision was resumed. Since 1946 the post of the General public prosecutor of the USSR was introduced, which was appointed by the Supreme Soviet for the period of 7 years, himself appointed public prosecutors of the republics and confirmed public prosecutors of subordinate levels.Since 1943 functions of governing in the field of protection of state security and social order carried out by the NKVD of the USSR (till 1946 - narkom L.P.Beriya, then - S.N.Kruglov) and the NKGB of the USSR (narkom - V.N.Merkulov, then - V.S. Abakoumov). In 1946 narkomats were renamed accordingly the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR and the Ministry of state security of the USSR.
Influence of these structures on internal political life of the country in 40s - the beginning of 50s was enormous. The sphere of competence of the NKVD(Ministry of Internal Affairs) and NKGB (МGB) officially included not only maintenance of state security, protection of social order and the socialist property. Tasks of these departments also consisted in managing of motor transport, highway and earth roads, management of geoshooting and cartography, wood protection, migration, fire protection, bodies of the registry office, even archival construction etc.
But, above all, the huge empire of GULAG was still under authority of the MIA and МGB. April 19, 1943 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR by Stalin's direction introduced a special kind of punishment - "penal servitude" for till 20 years. Special meeting at the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR - the extrajudicial repressive body, all decisions of which were taken with guidance and approval of the "leader", - undertook the prerogative of court-martials after war and actively used hard labour as a measure of punishment, constantly filling up the army of free-of-charge workers.
Redistribution of duties inside governing top of the party and the country, having taken place right after Stalin's death, resulted in merge in March, 1953 of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and МGB to the uniform Ministry of Internal Affairs which was headed by L.P.Beriya. After removal of Beriya in the middle of 1953 the successors of the "leader", who came to authority, first of all tried to put under control the activity of the repressive machinery of the state, understanding, what danger this huge retaliatory machine, working long years only under personal instructions and orders of Stalin, may represent to them.
After the Plenum of the TSK of the party in July (1953) the Special meeting at the Ministry of Internal Affairs was abolished, tribunals in armies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were liquidated, the normal order of investigation and judicial disposal of legal proceeding was restored. March 13, 1954 breaking up into smaller units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR took place - the Committee of state security was formed at the Soviet of Ministers of the USSR. Besides repressive bodies the important function in the government was carried out by the system of the state control working from 1940 to 1957.
Socio-political life in the Soviet society in post-war years, as well as in the prewar period, was completely monopolized by the Communist party.The released party workers entering the Communist Party committees of various levels possessed real authority in the party. Any democracy in formation of party committees was out of question; any rearrangements, changes in the structure of the party committees were coordinated at the higher level.
The Nomenclature's Authority, Courts, Directorate of Public Prosecutions, Ministries, the NKVD (MID), the NKGB (MGB), GULAG, Penal Servitude, Stalin, Beriya.