Development of science and culture in the USSR in post-war years was concerned with toughening of struggle against any, even the slightest, deviations from " the tasks of socialist construction ".In 1946 it was allocated 3,8 billion roubles (in 1940 - 2,3 billion) from the state budget for education; in 1950 this sum increased up to 5,7 billion roubles. In 1946 the all-Union committee of the higher school affairs was transformed into the Ministry of higher education of the USSR, in 1950 in the TSK VKP (b) the Department of science and higher educational institutions was formed.
In 1946 the Soviet government considerably increased charges on science. That year Academies of sciences in Ukraine, Byelorussia and Lithuania were restored, founded - in Kazakhstan, Latvia and Estonia. The second half of 40s was the time of organization of the whole series of scientific research institutes, which were later included in the golden fund of the Soviet science. Among them was the Institute of the exact mechanics and computer facilities, the Institute of radio engineering and electronics, the Institute of applied physics, the Institute of atomic energy and many others. At the same time continued to exist and extend special design offices, founded in the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR.
War and repressions of 30s stroke a hard blow on intelligentsia, therefore in 40s - the beginning of 50s the Soviet Union had huge deficiency of experts with higher and secondary education. Difficulties in the sphere of education in the USSR were solved due to downturn of the educational level. Though the wages of teachers and teachers of high schools, as well as all scientific employees, were essentially increased and a number of privileges was given, their grounding was lower even in comparison with 30s. The majority of schoolteachers were trained on short-term courses or at teacher's institutes by the short program.
Despite all that, the country accepted the system of general 7-year education. Lowering of the general educational level led to crises in the field of science and economy of the Soviet state, but at that time it had fast effect, there appeared an illusion of rapid science-technological development of the society. In 40s - the beginning of 50s the soviet science and technology achieved a number of successes, mainly in the field of physics, chemistry, the exact mechanics, but all of them basically were aimed at military needs.
In 1949 the nuclear bomb was tested in the USSR, the researches in the field of the chemical and bacteriological weapon took place.At the same time the branches of science, not having the direct connection to defense, underwent rigid pressing and even prohibitions. If in the development of both exact and natural sciences intervention and dictatorship of the party-State machinery were a brake, they became a real disaster for the humanities. During the first post-war decade no serious achievement was made in the humanities, and no outstanding works in the field of literature and art.
Not less negatively the campaign for struggle against cosmopolitism launched in the end of 40s - the beginning of 50s effected the development of science, literature and art. Its purpose was to blacken all that non-Soviet, non-socialist, to put a barrier between the Soviet people and achievements of culture of the western countries. As a result of the campaign many scientists and art figures underwent repressions, were dismissed from the posts and even imprisoned or banished. The party and the government openly and actively interfered with work of literature and art figures that resulted in fall of art and ideological level, formation of mediocre art embellishing the Soviet validity.
Such well-known Soviet composers, writers and poets as D.Shostakovich, S.Prokofyev, A.Hachaturyan, N.Myaskovsky, A.Ahmatova, M.Zoshchenko and others, whose creativity was referred to the "antinational" direction were persecuted.All that resulted in abrupt reduction of the amount of new films, performances and works of art, increase of mediocrity, conscious demolition of the great Russian art tradition of XIX - the beginning of XX.