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The Polish Revolt of 1830-1831
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The Polish Revolt of 1830-1831

The unification of Poland with the Russian Empire was increased by the revolutionary's movement, which was directed by the Polish nobility. Its purpose was the restoration of the Polish statehood and the returning of Poland to the borders of 1772. Numerous infringements of the Polish Constitution of 1815, and arbitrariness of the Russian administration, police reprisals, and the influence of the European revolutions of 1830 created an explosive situation in Poland.

The 7th (20th) of November, the members of the secret society uniting officers, students, intelligentsia, attacked the residence of the grand duke Konstantin in Warsaw. The Polish army and the population joined the revolutionists. A provisional government was formed, and also began the creation of national guards. The 13th (25th) of January, the Diet proclaimed the dethronation of Nikolay I from the Polish throne and elected a new government lead by A.Chartoryisky.

Soon the 120-thousand Russian's army under I.I.Dibich's command violated the limits of the Polish Empire. Despite of the numerical superiority of the Russian forces (the Polish army was composed of 50-60 thousand persons), the war delayed. In a number of battles both armies had significant losses. Only the on the 27th of August (the 8th of September), the Russian army under I.F.Paskevich's command (he replaced Dibich who died of cholera) entered Warsaw. The constitution of 1815 was cancelled. The Organic status of 1832 declared Poland an integral part of Russia.

Finishing in the 20s of the XIX century, the unification of the Caucasus to Russia caused the revival of the separative movement of Mountaineers-Muslims. It went on under the banner of muridism (novitiate) and was headed by the local clergy. Murids called all Muslems to sacred war against infidels. In 1834 Shamil became the Imam (the head of movement). In the territory of mountain Dagestan and in the Chechen Republic, he created a powerful theocratic state, the Imamate, which had connections with Turkey and received military support from England. The popularity of Shamil was great; he managed to collect under his commandment up to 20 thousand soldiers. After the significant successes of 20s, Shamil under the pressure of the Russian army was compelled to surrender in 1859 in the aul of Gunib. In the Northwestern Caucasus, military operations, which were leaded by the tribes Adygs, Shapsugs, Ubykhs etc.), continued till 1864.

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