The revolution movement and the creation of parties.
The industrial crisis (1900-1903), and the critical situation of the Russian villages, the degradation of the central power leaded to the degradation of the socio-political situation in the country at the beginning of XX century and then to the revolution of 1905-1907.
The worker's movement gradually became more and more powerful and there were many economical troubles; in 1895, strike in the town Yaroslavl in the factory of Korzinkin; summer 1896 strike of the textile workers of the region of Petersburg. Becoming more and more massive, organized, the worker's movement changed at the same time its character: under the influence of the Social democracy they started claiming political rights.
The farmer's movement at the beginning of the XX century really increased, due to the influence of the agricultural crisis, which made farmers become more and more poor. The greatest role played the famine that came in 1901 in the central and south provinces of Russia. In March an April 1902 the movement really started acting in the Poltava and Kharkov provinces. On the demonstrations were almost 150000 farmers; there were captures of animals, earth spaces etc. From 1900 to 1904 670 demonstrations were taken place.
The liberal movement.
The opposition mood covered different classes of intellectual people and increased also student movement (1899,1901, 1902). The liberal movement was activating and the influence of the constitutionalists was increasing. If in 90's the liberal movement was limited to the intercessions and wills to Nikolay II, in 1900 other ways of action appeared.
The creation of Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
At the beginning of the 90's were created many organizations unifying all the emigrants: the Union of Russian Socialist-revolutionaries (Bern), the fund of the Russian mass media, the circle of old members of "Narodnaya Volya" (Paris), which was taking care of the political propaganda. The program of the S.R had lot of common things with the program of the revolutionary people.
The S.R were trying to make Russia become a democratic republic constitutionally, through the Constituent Assembly. As Narodniki, S.R were thinking that individual terror is the main way of the revolution.
The creation of the social-democratic party.
The creation and the activity of the social democratic union leaded to the creation of the all Russian Party. In Minsk took place the first meeting of the social-democratic organizations, in which they decided to create the Social-democratic party (SDP). The official organ of the party was journal 'Worker's newspaper' and the manifest of RSDP.
The new temptation of creation of the social-democratic party was linked with the publication of the illegal political newspaper (ISKRA), based on the initiative of Lenin.
Constitutional-democratic party was having a special place in the system of political parties in the country. In it were very intelligent people of the beginning of the century dreaming of the transformation of Russia through the parliamentary way. The greatest meeting of the party took place in October 1905 in Moscow under the initiative of The Union of the liberation of constitutionalists.
The main idea of the Cadet program was the development of Russia through liberal parliamentary reforms. The program of The Cadets supposed the reconstruction of the organs of power, justice reform, cultural ideology of the nation, democratic freedom and permission of selling of part of the spaces. In the central committee of the Cadet's party were dominating people representing the intellectuals who usually chose the strategy course. The most important among them was Pavel Nikolaevich Milyukov.
The Union of the 17th of October as a political movement started by the end of October and the beginning of November 1905. The main program status of that party was the conservation of the unity and the indivisibility of the Russian empire, powerful monarchy and interdiction to purchase any land, equality of rights between farmers and people of the other classes. The president of the C.C of the Union was one of the oldest farmers D.N. Chipov, and from October 1906, the only leader became A.I. Guchkov.
Black-hundred organizations in the middle age of Russia were garden population. At the beginning of the XX century they started destroying the owners of agro-spaces, people participating to the demonstrations and, half year later they were for the abolition of some political parties. The first Black-hundred party appeared in 1900 and declared that its aim was to defend the Slavonic-Russian culture. In that organization were taking part the representatives of high classes and intellectuals.
The revolution of 1905 gave another impulse to the black-hundred movement. In Moscow in 1905 was created the Russian Monarchist Party, and in November in Petersburg was created the biggest of the black-hundred party (The Union of Russian nation).
Anarchic organizations in Russia.
The first anarchic groups in Russia appeared in 1903, and by the end of 1903 were already working almost 12 organizations in 11 towns of Russia. Very soon appeared 3 centers of the anarchic movement (Belovostok, Ekaterinoslav and Odessa). The greatest help to the Russian anarchism came from the anarchist-emigrants that created in 1904 big publication centers printing newspapers about the anarchist groups in Russia and in foreign land.
The main branches of the anarchism in Russia at the beginning of the Russian revolution were: anarcho-communism, anarcho-individualism. Each branch got its publication organs, and the regions in which it acted. Within every branch were many small fractions. The aim of the anarchists-communists is the social revolution which is the complete destruction of the capitalism and the government; at their place must stand the anarchism-communism. The main methods of the war were revolt and terrorism.
The social contradictions, created by the tsar's power by violence in the XX century came to the critical point. For most of the 'prophets' of the power it was evident that the union based on the negation of the worker's movement claiming justice is very dangerous. Trying to stand at the middle of these two powerful organizations, the absolute power passed through the way of the negation of the workers' rights by collaborating with the police-socialism. The idea of creating legal worker organizations under the policy belonged to the 'gendarme' - Colonel Sergey Vasilievich.