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State political development.
Social and economic reforms of 1992-1993. 'Shock therapy'
Foreign policy in 1992-1993.
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State political development.

Development of State system basis in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic prompted process of sovereignty acquiring by other union republics and USSR disintegration. The 1st congress of People's Deputies of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic elected B.N. Yeltsin to the post of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic, he became the recognized leader of new Russia.
Exactly in one year, on June 12, 1991, within the framework of strengthening the supreme executive power and according to authorized by the IV congress of People's Deputies of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Law on Presidency, B.N. Yeltsin was elected to this post by nation-wide voting. Already in the first round of elections he got support of about 60 % of voters.

After the events of August 1991 full state-political authority passed from the Union centre to the republics. The President, the government and the Supreme Soviet of Russia had opportunity for realization of radical state-political, social and economic reforms in the country. Crisis in the economy, and society as a whole cried for it.

On October 28, 1991, during the second stage of the V congress of People's Deputies of Russia, B.N. Yeltsin presented outline of radical economic reforms. In its basis he laid the methods of "shock therapy". The program of reforms called for prompt introduction of free prices for goods and services, liberalization of internal and foreign trade, comprehensive privatization of state ownership. Unreasonable on-budget expenditures were reduced, program of social help for the least well-to-do layers of population was established.

Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Russia was elected R.I. Khasbulatov. Some days after B.N. Yeltsin's decree about imposition on himself the powers of the Chairman of the Government of Russia and appointment to the post of the first assistant the state secretary G.E. Burbulis followed. Vice-prime ministers by the same decree were appointed two scientists-economists - E.T. Gaidar and A.N. Shokhin, who were to conduct realization of market reforms. Chairman of State Committee on property, responsible for realization of privatization in the country, was appointed A.B.Chubais.

After disintegration of the USSR in December 1991 the most important question in sphere of state structure for the leadership of Russia was that of preservation of territorial integrity of the country. Already since 1990 the autonomous republics in structure of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic changed their status up to the level of Union republics. That gave them additional sovereign powers.

After long negotiations and discussions in the Kremlin on March 31, 1992 the majority of subjects of the Russian Federation signed the Federal Pact. The republics in structure of the Russian Federation, territories, area, autonomous regions and cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg were referred to subjects of the Federation. Leaders of Tatarstan and the Chechen republic refrained from signing the Federal Pact, declaring full sovereignty and independence of federal authorities.

The radical economic reforms of 1992, first of all, liberalization of prices, caused sharp fall of standards of living of a significant part of population of the country.
In the course of 1993 the major factor of state-political development of the country became more and more acute opposition of two supreme institutions of governmental authorities - executive, represented by the President and his staff, and legislative - represented by leaders of the Supreme Soviet of Russia.

As an optimum way out of that situation President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin in January 1993 offered to complete constitutional agreement with the leaders of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation. He put forward the idea of national discussion (referendum) on the question of constitutional crisis. Parliamentary leaders rejected the initiative of the President, they were supported by the Constitutional Court of Russia. The VIII (special) congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation held on March 10-13 by its decision rejected the question of the referendum.

Then B.N. Yeltsin applied to drastic measures: on March 20 he addressed all citizens of Russia through TV, he declared, that decisions of the VIII congress were "the revenge of Communist party officials" and that he gave effect to Decree N 379 "on special order of governing" the country till overcoming the crisis. This measure caused rough reaction of the bigger part of deputies, the Chairman of the Constitutional Court already on March 23 doubted the legality of that presidential Decree. Under those conditions at the end of March the IX (special) congress of People's Deputies gathered again. Expressed by the referendum support of reforms course, carried out by the President, became the basis, which allowed B.N. Yeltsin to continue discussion of a project of the Constitution of Russia.

On September 21, 1993. B.N. Yeltsin again appeared on television with address to people. He declared abrogation of the Supreme Soviet and congress of People's Deputies, and formation of two-chamber Federal Assembly on the basis of elections to the State Duma, he declared also that the Soviet of Federation would execute functions of the upper chamber of parliament. Decree N 1400 "About stage-by-stage constitutional reform in the Russian Federation" was signed on that very day. The presidential decree on abrogation of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation and congress of People's Deputies of Russia, which actually meant liquidation of the Soviet authorities system, caused tough response.

At the X congress of People's Deputies, urgently summoned on September 23, the resolution about termination of presidential powers of B.N. Yeltsin and about imposition of his duties on A.V. Rutskoy was adopted. Deputies, who had gathered in "the White house', decided to not leave the building and to organize its defense. The apogee of confrontation between the deputies of the Supreme Soviet and the forces, supporting the presidential authority, became tragical events, which took place in Moscow on October 3-4, 1993 when holding a meeting supporters of the Supreme Soviet broke through the cordon to "the White house", and then, led by V.Anpilov, A.Makashov, A.Barkashov etc., followed the road of open armed confrontation with executive authority. They seized the building of Moscow city administration in Novy Arbat street, and then attacked television center in Ostankino.

However in the morning on October 4, 1993, according to orders of the Government and the decree of the President about state of emergency in Moscow, tank units of Kantemirovskaya division were drew up to "the White house". They shelled the building of the Supreme Soviet and not later as the second half of day, with the help of special forces, "the White house" was seized by storm. Main political opponents of the President (Khasbulatov, Rutskoy, Makashov, Barannikov etc.) were arrested. Next day, on October 5 the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation declared its resignation of check of statutory acts of Russia functions. B.N.Yeltsin undertook authority on maintenance of presidential government in the country up to elections to the State Duma.

Thus, during October events of 1993 the confrontation between the legislature power and the President was ended by force. According to the Decree of the President, elections to the Federal Assembly were held on December 12, 1993. The referendum on the draft of a new Constitution of Russia was simultaneously carried out.

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