Russia History   Moscow State   Moscow State Formation
 :: Articles
Ivan III Reign.
Culture of Muscovy
The Foreign Policy of Ivan III. Overthrow of the Golden Horde Rule.
Consolidation of The Moscow Princedom in Reign of Vasily I
Changes in the System of Public Management.
The Feudal War in the second quarter of XV Century.
Strengthening of Political System in Reign of Ivan III.
The Last Will of Ivan III.
Autocephaly of the Russian Orthodox Church in the middle of XV century
Social and Economic Development of Russia in XV century.
The Church and Heresies in the second half of XV century.
International Situation of Muscovy in XV century
Relations of Moscow with The Great Lithuanian Princedom and The Golden Horde
Annexation of Novgorod's Lands to Moscow
 :: Search
Search in articles
Search in current section
 :: Constructor
 :: Game server
 :: Test

Culture of Muscovy

From the end of XIV century the development of Russian culture was characterized by significant rise. The fundamental matter of the cultural process in XV century was the task of liberation of the nation and strengthening of the single Russian Sate. Moscow became the true centre of All-Russian national culture. The role and value of Russian language strengthened in this period. New literary works contributing creation of the State appeared again and again. Interest to the history of Motherland grew also. In modern literature Russian culture of this period is called "Russian Renaissance".

In XV century practically all large cities of Northeast Russia were restoring and enlarging monastic schools. Old hand-written books were re-written and new once created. Literacy of various layers of population was growing, especially in cities.

The Moscow annals occupied a prominent place in the field of literature that time. In 1408 Moscow Mitropoly began to compile first All-Russian annalistic books, the very first one was The Trinity Chronicle. The first Moscow annalistic book that gave an ideological substantiation of historical importance of association of Russian Lands around Moscow was compiled in 1480.

The victory on Kulikovo Field called into being such outstanding literary works as "Skazaniye o Mamayevom Poboische' and a poetical narrative "Zadonschina' which was written down by Efrosin, the monk of Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery in the end of XV century.

The Rise of Russian culture and art that involved all the Russian Lands associated by Moscow was due to restoration and development of cultural relations with the countries of Europe and the East. In this regard especially fruitful were cultural contacts with the nations of Bulgaria and Serbia; their culture had great influence on Russian literature and fine art. Russian hagiographical literature of that time represents a vivid example of such South-Slavic influence. The famous master of this genre, Epifaniy the Wise (died in 1422) complied biographies of Sergy Radonezhsky and Stefan Permsky.

A significant place in the Russian Medieval Literature is occupied by The Chronograph - a collection of moralizing and entertaining stories on the world history, prepared in 1442 by Serb Pakhomiy Logofet who lived in Russia since 30's of XV century up to his death in 1484. He was also an editor of some well-known in Russia biographical narrations that are close to oral national folk art tradition.

Expansion of political, economic and cultural contacts of Muscovy with other countries was reflected in such famous literary monument of that epoch as the travel notes of Afanasiy Nikitin, the Tver merchant, written in a literary genre of travellings. 'Khozhdeniye za Tri Morya' depicts the travels of Nikitin to Persia, India and other countries of the East between 1466 and 1472.Besides this genre, epical and satirical folklore was also widespread in Muscovy.

Russian architecture of XV century was characterized by the further development of the two main architectural schools: Novgorod and Moscow tradition. A characteristic example of the first one is represented by Vasily's Temple on Gorka (erected in Pskov in 1410). The Moscow Architectural School based on traditions of Vladimir and Novgorod-Pskovy architecture gradually became dominant. Unique monuments of early Moscow architecture are: the Assumption Cathedrals in Gorodok (Zvenigorod), temples of the Trinity-Sergiyev, Savvino-Storozhevsky and Andronikov Monasteries.

In Ivan III's reign a great importance was given to development of the Moscow architecture and in its turn it was directly connected with strengthening of the Grand Moscow Duke's power. A large-scale reconstruction of the Moscow Kremlin architecture was carried out in that period by Russian masters together with invited Italian architects. In 1479 Italian master Aristotel Fioravanti completed erection of the main temple of the Russian State - the Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin.

After that the Faceted Chamber, Ivan Lestvichnik's Temple, the Grand Guke's Palace, the Arkhangelsk Cathedral and also the Kremlin walls and towers were constructed in the Kremlin. Along with Fioravanti, other Italian architectures like Anton Fryazin, Marko, Pietro Solari, Aleviz Fryazin and Ateviz Novy participated in this project. On the whole, Italian masters, artisans, craftsmen, artists considerably affected formation of Russian culture of that time. But no less skillful were the works of native Russian masters. Pskov architects, for instance, erected the Grand-Ducal Annunciation House Church in the Kremlin in 1489.

This was also the period of the highest development of Russian church painting. In the end of XIV and in the beginning of XV century in Novgorod, Moscow, Serpukhovo and Nizhni Novgorod worked Pheophan Greek (1340?-1405), the great artist who came from Byzantium. He painted the Saviour Temple in Ilin Street in Novgorod, together with Simeon Cherny he painted the Moscow Church of the Nativity of the Mother of God (1395) and the Arkhangelsk Cathedral (1399).

The great Russian artist who lived also in that period was Andrey Rublev (1369 or 1370-1430). He participated in painting of the old Annunciation Cathedral in the Kremlin (1405), together with Pheophan Greek and master Prokhor from Gorodets he painted The Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir (1408), The Trinity Cathedral - in Troitsko-Sergiyev Monastery and The Saviour Cathedral of Andronikov Monastery (1420's). A masterpiece of the world painting art - "The Trinity" icon was also executed by him.

In the end of XV century a huge contribution to development of Russian painting was made by outstanding icon painter Dionisy (1440-1503). Together with his sons Pheodosiy and Vladimir and his other apprentices he created frescos of The Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin, paintings of temples of Pafnutyevo-Borovsky, Iosifo-Volokolamsky and Pherapontov Monasteries. A well-known icon 'Spas v Silakh' is also among his great works.

Copyright © RIN 2001-. Russia Russia site map Feedback