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Culture and Science

The basic role in book publishing and book-trade in the beginning of century was played by printing houses: in 1813 were 55 state and the number of private printing houses in the country grew. The first large publishers appeared. The number and the influence of periodicals, including political magazines grew. The first of them was "Bulletin of Europe" of Karamzin. From 1812 in St. Petersburg the hysterical and political magazine "Son of Fatherland" began to be published.
In 1814 was opened the first Public library in St. Petersburg, which became a national book-depository.

The first quarter of the XIX century was marked by the increase of interest in problems of Russian language: the formation of Russian literary language began, the scientific terminology extended. In 1804, branches of literature appeared at the universities. "The Dictionary of the Russian Academy", the first dictionary of Russian, was issued.

The huge merit in reforming Russian literary language belonged to Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (1766-1826). The followers of Karamzin created a literary association "Arzamas" (1815 - 1818), which entered V.A.Zhukovsky, P.A.Vyazemsky, K.N.Batushkov, S.S.Uvarov, V.L.Pushkin, young A.S.Pushkin etc.

In Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky's creativity (1783-1852) features of romanticism, the mainstreams in the Russian literature of the first decades of the XIX century were brightly showed in.
One of the most talented poets of this epoch was Konstantin Nikolaevich Batushkov (1787-1855), Russian romanticism. The turning point in his creativity became patriotic war of 1812 and the participation of the Russian army in foreign campaigns.
Alexander Sergeevich Griboedov (1795-1829) enjoyed great popularity.
In 1809, the first collection basen of I.A.Krylov (1769-1844) appeared.

The theatre played more and more appreciable role in the public life. Tragedies of V.A.Ozerov knew a tremendous success (1769-1816); they were written on historical plots and distinguished by political actuality ("Yaropolk and Oleg", "Dmitry Donskoy" etc.). I.A.Krylov's and А.А.Shakhovsky's plays (1777-1846) were very popular and showed the derision-customs of the nobility.

At the capital theatrical stage acted I.A.Dmitrievsky, A.S.Yakovlev, P.S.Mochalov, M.S.Shepkin, E.S.Semenova. In 1824 in Moscow the Maly theatre, and in 1825 the Bolshoy opera and ballet theatre also opened. Serf theatres occured in province, replacing absent professional theatres. The serf-theatre of Earl Kamensky received a great popularity in 1815, and also the serf theatre of Gladkov in Penza.

The development of musical culture in the beginning of the XIX century was based on the traditions of chamber-vocal music of the end of the XVIII century. The most important place in it belonged to the romances of A.A.Alyabyev A.N.Verstovsky, M.I.Glinka and other composers. The Russian romance became that musical form, on the basis of which the national Russian opera was created.

In the beginning of the XIX century, painting alongside with classicism and its mythological and bible plots, the romantic direction appeared, with interest inherent to the person, the internal world of the person. It caused the development of the portrait genre. A remarkable gallery of portraits was created by O.A.Kiprensky, V.A.Tropinin, V.L.Borovikovsky. In the 20s A.G.Venitsianov's pictures, who became one of the first Russian artists paying attention to the image of simple people and to the theme of rural life.

The Russian monumental sculpture, developing in the atmosphere of classicism, at the boundary of the XVIII and XIX century experienced a new rise. It is illustrated through the products of M.I.Kozlovsky (A.V.Suvorov's monument in St. Petersburg) and I.P.Martos by the project of 1818, under which was erected the monument of Minin and Pozharsky in the Kremlin.

The beginning of the XIX century became the period of bloom of the Russian empire style in architecture. In St. Petersburg, the building of the Kazan cathedral (A.N.Voronihin), Admiralty (A.D.Zaharov) were erected. In Moscow at that time was constructed the Golitsyn hospital (M.F.Kazakov), under A.A.Mikhailov's project, elaborated again by O.I.Bove; the building of the Bolshoy theatre was restored. Zhilyardy reconstructed the old building of the Moscow university, which suffered of fire.

For the Russian science the beginning the XIX century was a period of professional training, accumulation of knowledge, acquaintances to the European achievements, expansions of the scientific terminology.
Discoveries in the field of physics by the professor of Petersburg medico-surgical academy V.V.Pеrоv (1761-1834), action of galvanic current, electric arch (1802), put in pawn bases of electrochemistry and electrometallurgy in Russia, cleared the way to opening of the law of preservation and transformation of energy. Scientific chemists in 1805-1818 developed the theory of electrolyze.

The geographical discoveries of the Russian scientists-travellers had huge value for the Science. In 1803-1806. U.F.Lisyansky (1773-1837) and I.F Krusenstein (1790-1846) made the first in the history of Russia travel around the world.
During the expedition of Russian Seafarers M.P.Lazarev (1788-1851) and F.F.Bellinsgausen, Antartica was opened near the South Pole (1821.)

The biological science successfully developed, researches of floraflora and faunafauna were done, and it promoted the opening of the Nikitsky botanical garden in Crimea (1812), the Botanical museum and the Botanical garden in Moscow (1824). Achievements in historical science were significant. The creation by N.M.Karamzin of 'History of the Russian State' in 12 volumes was the major landmark.

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