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Clulture of the Post-War Decade
Foreign Policy. The Cold War.
Consolidation of Personal Authority of Stalin
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Repressions of the end of 40s-the beginning of 50s
The XIX Congress of the VCP (b)
Stalin's Death. Struggle for Authority.
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Foreign Policy. The Cold War.

The major direction of foreign policy of the USSR in the first post-war years was formation of a strong system of safety of the country both in Europe, and on Far East boundaries.As a result of victory of the countries of the anti-Hitler's coalition over powers of the fascist-militaristic block the role and influence of the Soviet Union in the international relations immeasurably increased.

After the end of the World War II the contradictions in the policy of conducting powers of the anti-Hitler's coalition of the USSR, USA and Great Britain broke out with new force. 1946 became the turning of the policy of cooperation of these countries to post-war confrontation. In Western Europe fundamentals of socio-economic and political structure ad exemplum of " the western democracies " started to be formed. In this connection great significance was attached to acceptance by the administration of the USA in 1947 of " the plan of Marshall " which essence consisted in revival of the West-European economy with the help of granting of financial assets and the newest technologies over the ocean, and also in maintenance of political stability and military safety (creation of the Western union in 1948).

Simultaneously in the countries of East Europe there existed the sociopolitical system similar to the Stalin's model of " state socialism ". After the victory of so-called people's democratic revolutions with the support of the USSR in the second half of 40s the governments oriented at the Soviet Union consolidated the authority in these countries. Such situation became a basis for formation of the " sphere of safety " at the western borders of the USSR, which was consolidated by a number of bilateral contracts of the Soviet Union with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Yugoslavia, concluded in 1945-1948.

Thus, post-war Europe was divided into two groupings of the states with various ideological orientation resisting each other on the basis of which were created:first in 1949 - the North Atlantic union (NATO) under aegis of the USA, then in 1955 - Warsaw Treaty Organization (OWD) with a dominant role of the USSR.

The main axes of confrontation in the post-war world for a long time were the relations between two superpowers - the USSR and USA. But if the USSR tried to carry out the policy basically with indirect methods, the USA were striving to put a barrier to distribution of communism, counting both on economic and political pressure, and upon military force, which was connected first of all with possession of the USA of the monopoly of nuclear weapon during almost all of the second half of 40s.

Since autumn of 1945 harsh statements to each other's address, and since 1947 - open threats and accusations were made in Moscow and Washington. During 40s there was a constant increase of intensity in the East - West relations, reaching apogee in 1950-1953, during war in Korea.Till summer of 1949 regular meetings of ministers of Foreign Affairs (SMID) of the USA, England, France, China and the USSR were still carried out, on which attempts to find the solution of foreign questions were undertaken. However, the majority of decisions taken remained on paper.

In occupational zones of the USA, England and France the social and economic system of the western model, and in the east occupational zone of the USSR - the model of Stalin socialism were formed. The autumn of 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany, and then - the German Democratic Republic was formed.In Asian - Pacific region similar processes occurred in China and Korea.

In 1945 the USSR, the USA and England agreed to refuse intervention in internal political struggle in China, however both the USA, and the USSR supported the allies - Ho Min Dan followers and communists. Actually civil war in China in 1945-1949 was indirect military collision between the USA and the USSR. The victory of the Chinese communists suddenly increased influence of the Soviet Union in the region and, naturally, aggravated the position of the USA as they lost the strongest and powerful ally in the face of Ho Min Dan China.

As against to the western countries, the states of East Europe did not form the single military-political union till the middle of 50s. But it did not mean, that military-political interaction did not exist - it was formed on another basis. The Stalin system of interrelation with allies was so rigid and effective, that did not require signing multilateral agreements and creation of blocks. Decisions taken by Moscow were obligatory for all socialist countries.

Despite the big grants, the Soviet economic help might not be compared in efficiency with the American " Marshall's plan ". " The Marshall's plan " was also offered to the Soviet Union, however the Stalin government couldn't but reject it, as development of democracy, private business and observance of human rights was incompatible with the totalitarian concept of the government carried out by Stalin.Refusal of the USSR to accept " the Marshall's plan " was one of the facts in straining of the relations of socialism and capitalism, the striking evidence of which was the race of arms and mutual threats.

The apogee of mutual hostility and mistrust became the Korean war of 1950-1953. Having started the war, armies the Northkorean government of Kim Ir Sen within several weeks crushed the army of South Korea and " released" almost all Korean peninsula. The USA were forced to use their forces in Korea, operating under the flag of the UNO, which condemned aggression of Northern Korea.Northern Korea was supported by China and the USSR. The USSR completely undertook the supply, and also air covering of Chinese armies. The world appeared on the verge of global war, as practically there was a military collision of the USSR and the USA in Korea.

But war did not burst: the Soviet and American governments, being afraid of unpredictable consequences, at the last moment refused to open operations against each other. End of the Korean war by an armistice, Stalin's death marked some recession of intensity in the opposition of socialism and capitalism.

The period following the Stalin's death and proceeding till the XX congress of the CPSU was characterized by inconsistency and fluctuations in foreign policy. Alongside with extension of political contacts, renewal of consultations between the Soviet and western governments there were appreciably Stalin recurrences in foreign policy of the USSR.

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