Crisis of the policy of 'Military Communism'. Anti-bolshevists revolts.
By the beginning of 1920 the Red army set an absolute control of a significant part of the territory of former Russian empire, except for Finland, Poland, Baltic and Bessarabia. Simultaneously the Soviet government activated the work on establishment of peace relations with the frontier states. February 26 - the peace treaty with Persia, February 28 - with Afghanistan, March 16 - the treaty of friendship and brotherhood with Turkey were signed.
The domestic situation of the Soviet state was remaining grave. Still the main attention was paid to raising of military production. As a result of exhaustion of metal and fuel resources and changeover of the industry for military needs in 1920 2-3 times less machines and instruments, than in 1919 were provided for agriculture. Lack of hands, agricultural stock and seed fund resulted in reduction in 1920 of areas under crops by 25 % in comparison with 1916, and total yield of agricultural production decreased by 40-45 % in comparison with 1913.
All this and drought became the main reasons of famine in 1921. It struck about 20 % of population and resulted in loss of almost 5 million people.With the purpose of rendering assistance to starving the All-Russian (public) committee of help to starving was formed. The American organization of help (АRА) allocated for this purpose about 149 million gold roubles. In Paris under presidency of one of the founders and ideologists of the S.R. party N.D.Avksentyev the Russian public committee of help to starving in Russia was formed.
In August, 1921 Patriarch Tikhon (V.I.Belavin) in the appeal " To nations of the world and the orthodox person " called to help millions of doomed for starvation. For collecting donations of parishioners the All-Russia committee of the church help to starving was created. The government of the RSFSR negatively regarded attempts of churchmen to help starving. August 27 on accusation in appealing to support of believers of Russia and foreign countries Presidium VTSIK liquidated the All-Russia committee of help to starving. At the end of February 1922 the decree of forcible requisition of values from churches, including attributes of divine service was issued. It caused protests from the direction of acolytes of church, among whom more than 8 thousand people were subjected to repression.
Aggravation of economic situation, preservation of emergency communistic measures resulted in occurrence in 1921 of political and economical crisis in the country. Peasants complained with food allotment. They were supported by the major part of working class. Revolts were stirred up in Kronstadt (about 27 thousand people), Western Siberia (100 thousand), Tambov and a number of areas of the Voronezh and Saratov provinces (up to 30 thousand), Northern Caucasus, Byelorussia, Mountain Altai, Ukraine, Central Asia, and Don.
The army under command of M.N.Tuhachevsky, reconstituted on March 5, 1921, was directed for suppression of revolt in Kronshtadt. However, hastily prepared onslaught of Kronstadt on March, 8 had no success. After careful and thorough preparation the unit of the 7th army in the morning of March 17 started new onslaught, having a task not only to seize a fortress but also to shoot "rebels" without any regret. After suppression of the revolt in Kronstadt through created revolutionary triads in 1921-1922 passed 10 thousand people involved in the events taking place in a fortress. Out of this number 2103 people were sentenced to execution, more than 6,4 thousand to various terms of imprisonment, and others were released.
Political bureau of the CC RCP (b), taking into account M.N.Tuhachevsky's experience, April 27, 1921 took the decision to appoint him commander of the armies of the Tambov province. Since May till July 1921 the army of the Tambov province, widely using hostaging and occupation of settlements, and sometimes chemical weapon, completely crushed insurgents. By the end of July, 1921 in concentration camps was over 9,2 thousand people, including almost 2,3 thousand hostages. The Soviet authority in the Tambov province was restored.
For struggle against national 100-thousand army of insurgents in Siberia active armed forces under V.I.Shorin's command were directed. Since February till the end of 1921 they defeated insurgents, having dispersed the rests in tundra. In September 1921 the troops of the 1st Horse army under command of S.M.Budenny crushed insurgent army in Northern Caucasus, and in Ukraine the Soviet armies led by М.В. Frunze defeated the army of N.I. Маkhnо. The armies under command of I.P.Uborevich destroyed insurgents in Byelorussia.In 1921 units of the Red Army of the RSFSR and National - revolutionary army of the Far East republic (commander V.K.Blyuher) crushed troops of general R.F.Ungern von Sternberg.
Together with the Mongolian revolutionary groups the Soviet armies occupied Urga (Ulan Bator) where the national - revolutionary authority was established. November 5 between Mongolia and the RSFSR the agreement on establishment of friendly relations was signed. In February 1922. National - revolutionary army of DVR defeated White Guards under Volochaevka and in October finished liberation of Primorsky Krai. Japan was compelled to remove its armies from South Primorsky Krai, keeping only Northern Sakhalin. The Far East republic was abolished.