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Governing institutions from February till October of 1917.
Bodies of Soviet authority
The system of political parties
The policy of the Provisional Government
April crisis
Failure of Russian army's offensive
July crisis
Revolt of general L.G.Kornilov
Formation of new authority
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Governing institutions from February till October of 1917.

Central and local administration from February till October of 1917.

The major factor that influenced the succession of events in Russia from February 1917 was the activity of the first members of the Provisional Government, led by prince G.E.Lvov. In compliance with its Declaration and relying on gains of February revolution, it carried out a number of democratic reforms. The law on freedom of assembly and unions was passed, censorship and other repressive bodies of imperial regime (police, gendarmerie, penal servitude etc.) were abolished. Central administrative board on affairs of militia was created instead of department of police. Structure and administrative personnel of other public bodies were reorganized. Political amnesty was declared. Arrest of Nikolai II, his ministers and members of former administration was authorized at the same time.

According to the law of March 8, 1917 the Council of Ministers and its chancellery were renamed into the Provisional Government and its chancellery. The ministries of imperial court and appanages were abolished. Department on affairs of local management for supervision of activity of the Provisional Government's commissioners was formed in the second half of March under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Legal council, whose duty was to give 'preliminary legal conclusions' on actions of the government, was created under the Provisional Government.

Cabinet crisis emerged in April 1917, in May the first coalition government, which was still headed by prince G. E. Lvov, was formed. The new government carried out reorganization of state authorities. Ministry of labour and Ministry of mails and telegraphs were established on the basis of Ministry of trade and industry. Ministry of public care was created with the purpose of helping the families of killed and crippled during the war. Economic council for development of "the general plan of organization of national economy and labour" and Main economic council "for realization of all actions for regulation of economic life in the country by separate departments and institutions " was established under the Provisional Government at the end of June. Special council on preparation of the law on elections to the Constituent Assembly was formed at the end of March.

The second coalition government, led by A.F.Kerensky, was formed in July of 1917. He and the deputy minister-chairman, Minister of Finance Constitutional Democrat N.V.Nekrasov, Minister of Internal Affairs socialist-revolutionary N.D.Avksentiev, Minister of Foreign Affairs M.I.Tereshenko and foodstaff minister people's socialist A.V.Peshekhon went into the Committee of defense. At the beginning of August the post of the chief public prosecutor of the Synod was replaced by the Ministry of confessions. All-Russian commission (Vsebybory) on affairs of elections to the Constituent Assembly started its activity from August 7. At the end of August the Cabinet of Minister for War was transformed into the War Cabinet of the chairman minister - the Supreme Commander-in-Chief. After liquidation of general L.G.Kornilov's revolt the Directory of five members - A.F.Kerensky, M.I.Tereshenko, A.M.Nikitin, general A.I.Verkhovsky and admiral D.N.Verderevsky was created instead of the government "till final formation of the cabinet".

Democratic conference started its work on September 14, it elected Preparliament, a standing Provisional council of the republic for solution of the question on structure of the government in Petrograd on September 21. In three days Kerensky formed the third coalition government.

Authority and institutions of local governing at the local level.

Provincial, city and district commissioners of the Provisional Government replaced local State institutions of czarism during the first weeks after the February revolution. At first their rights were not regulated, and only on September 25, 1917 'The temporary provisions about provincial (regional) and uyezd commissioners" was promulgated. Elective temporary committees of public organizations comprised of councilors of regional and city institutions of local governing autonomous bodies appeared alongside with Soviets. Zemstvoes (local governing bodies) were also created in a number of remote regions of Russia. General supervision of the whole system of Zemstvo institutions was assigned to All-Russian Zemstvo union. By law of April 15 regional autonomous bodies (dumas and boards) the activity of which was directed by Council of dumas were founded in cities with the population more than 150 thousand people.

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