Development of Soviet science and culture during the war
1941-1945 were the years of audacious and original technical decisions, of high rise in creative thinking of scientists, designers, engineers, workers. Results of the USSR Academy of Sciences researches enabled to broaden production and primary base, researches on new types of arms and production of the new types of arms. As early as in the first months of the war many of research institutes had to emigrate to the East of the country. In the process of changing the place all scientific foundations kept their personnel communities. The themes of the research institutions were of three directions: development of practical military-technical problems, scientific help to industry, mobilising of primary resources.
Thanks to geologists new deposits of iron ore, molybdenum ore were discovered, new sources of oil in Bashkiria (Northeast of Europe, close to the Urals).
Scientists A. Alexandrov, B. Gayev, A. Regel and others successfully solved the problem of anti-mine defence of the ships.
Serious successes were achieved in realms of Biology, Agriculture and Health Care. Soviet scientists found new plant types of raw material for industry, searched for ways of raising productivity in agriculture.
One of the necessary conditions for successful development of national economy was continuous training of new personnel in higher educational institutions and technicums. In 1941 reception to universities and institutes was reduced doubly and the number of them decreased from 817 down to 460; the number of students lowered 3.5 times, and time of training was shortened from 5-6 years down to 3.5 years. Anyway by the end of the war the number of students was close to the pre-war one.
In the war time creators of Soviet fighting technics and arms worked really hard. On the fields of battle those arms were tested and improved, which concerns especially new types of cannons and minethrowers. Soviet scientists managed to shorten many-foldly period of development and implementation of novelties. About half of all types of small arms and vast majority of artillery novelties were introduced during the war years. The USSR exceeded Germany on annual output volume of:
field artillery - doubly;
minethrowers - more than 5 times;
antitank cannons - 2.6 times;
Germany's dominance in tanks was overcome comparatively quickly.
Since the second part of 1942 production of aircrafts and aviation engines was steadily piled up.
Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War patriotic theme became a dominant one in cinema, theatre, fiction - everywhere. In the war years many prominent poets, writers became reporters at front.
Historical literature became popular as well.
In movie the main theme of the screen was heroic struggle of Soviet people with the enemy, and news-reel occupied the leading place. 129 camera-men worked at the frontier in 1945. Fiction films, created in war years, narrated about bolshevics, partisans, about life on the occupied territory and people, violently brought to Germany. The comedy remained one of the leading genre.
Since the first days of the war Trade Unions Central Committee Plenum addressed to workers of Art to participate in great liberating struggle. On 3 July 1941 Presidium of the All-Union Theatrical Society accepted a decision to create a defensive and anti-fascist repertoire. There were created 400 theatre-concert brigades for work at front, 25 front theatres. 42,000 actors worked at front, who gave 1350 performances, including 437 at the forefront itself.