Many of Peter's reforms were aimed to fundamental reorganization of the military forces of the country: creation of the regular Army and building of powerful home Navy. The 'poteshny' regiments of 1687 were nothing but the core of the new Army. They became some kind of school of fighting training for new units.
Reorganization of the Army already started in 1698, when Strelets regiments were being disbanded and regular regiments were being created. The experience of recruitment of soldiers and dragoons, gained in the second half of the XVII, was used when completing new regiments. In accordance with the new recruitment system, the soldier staff was recruited from peasants and other tax estates, and officers - from the nobles. The Decree from November 19, 1699 provided for completing of 30 infantry regiments. And the Decree from 1705 completed the system of recruitment.
As a result, from 1699 to 1725 there were 53 recruitments to the Army and the Navy (23 main and 30 additional recruitments). They gave more than 284 thousand people, called up for life military service. In 1699, apart from two Guards' regiments, 27 infantry and 2 dragoon regiments were created, but by 1708 Peter's Army had 52 infantry (with 5 Grenadiers among them) and 33 cavalry regiments. After the winning the battle of Poltava, the Army staff was decreased: nearly 100-thousand Army consisted of 42 infantry and 35 dragoon regiments. Nevertheless, the new table (1720) defined 51 infantry and 35 cavalry regiments, which, by the end of Peter's reign constituted the 130-thousand Army of three branches of the service - infantry, cavalry and artillery. Apart from those, about 70 thousand people comprised garrison hosts, 6 thousand - land-militia and more than 105 thousand - Cossack and other irregular units.
To teach soldiers and officers, in addition to 'Military Regulations'(1698), a number of different precepts were worked out: 'Preparations to a battle', 'The rules of a battle', 'Military articles' etc. At last, issued in 1716 'Military Regulations' generalized 15-year experience of constant armed fight. In 1698-1699 the bombard school, attached to Preobrazhensky regiment, was founded in order to teach officers, and in the beginning of the new century mathematic, navigation, artillery, engineering, foreign languages and even surgery schools were being established. In 1720s 50 garrison schools were preparing non-commissioned officers. There was a common practice to send young nobles abroad to take some training course on military science. At the same time, the Government refused to hire foreign military specialists.
Together with creation of the regular Army, the Navy was being built in the South as well as in the North. The main efforts were concentrated on the creation of the Baltic Fleet. In 1708 the first in the Baltic sea 28-cannon frigate was launched, and in 20 years Russian Navy was the most powerful Fleet in the Baltic: 32 battleships (from 50 to 96 cannons), 16 frigates, 85 galleys and other smaller boats. The Fleet staff was also completed with recruits (for the first time - in 1705). To teach navigation a number of instructions were made, among which there were 'The Navy Regulations' and 'The Admiralty Regulations' (1722). In 1715 in St. Petersburg the Navy Academy, training the naval officers, were founded. In 1716 the preparation of the naval officers in naval cadets company started.