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The Movement of Decembrists
The Revolt of December 14, 1825
The Foreign Policy in the first half of the XIX century
The Foreign Campaign of the Russian Army in 1813-1815
Culture and Science
The Patriotic War of 1812
The State Political and Legal System
The Reforms in Russia after 1814
The Social and Economical Development of Russia in the 1st quarter of the XIX century.
The Social Movement in the first quarter of the XIX century
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The Movement of Decembrists

The refusal of the government from the reforms policy and the growth of the reaction provoked the appearance of the first Russian revolutionary movement, which was composed of the progressive-adjusted militaries from the liberal layers of the nobility. The patriotic war was one of the sources of origin of 'the free thinking in Russia".

In 1814-1815 were created secret officers organizations (the Union of Russian knights, the Sacred artel, the Semenov's artel). Their founders (М.F.Orlov, M.A.Dmitriev-Mamonov, A. and M.Muravyevs) counted inadmissible the preservation of the serf condition of peasants and the soldiers who accomplished civil feat during Napoleon's invasion.

In February 1816, the Union of rescue was created in St Petersburg. 30 patriotically adjusted young militaries entered that centralized secret organization. In one year the Union "status", the program and the charter were approved, after that the organization began to be called 'the Society of true and faithful children of the Fatherland". The purpose of the struggle was the destruction of the serfdom and the establishment of the constitutional system. These requirements were supposed to be presented at the moment of change of the monarchs on the throne.

In 1818 a special commission (S.P.Trubetskoy, M. Muraviov, P.P.Koloshin) elaborated a new charter named of the color of the book-cover " he Green Book". The first secret society was liquidated and the Union of prosperity was created. Ultimate goals of the Union were the political and social revolution.
Soon in the Union of prosperity there were about 200 members. Educational societies of semi-legal character were formed around the Union. However the dissatisfaction of the educational activity in conditions of growth of peasants' revolts, the agitations in the army and the revolutionary events in Europe conducted to the radicalization of a part of the Union.

In January 1821, the congress of the Radical board took place in Moscow. It declared the Union of prosperity "disbanded", in order to facilitate the elimination of the "untrustworthy" members acting against violent measures. Immediately after the end of the congress, the secret Northern and Southern societies uniting supporters of armed revolution was created and prepared for the revolt of 1825.

After the liquidation of the Union of prosperity, a new secret society at once was created, the Northern, which basic nucleus was initiated by N.Muraviov, N.Turgenev, M.Lunin, S.Trubetskoy, E.Obolensky and I.Pushchin. It was possible to judge the program of Northern society through the constitutional project of Muraviov. Russia became a constitutional-monarchic state. The Federal division of the country into 15 "powers" was introduced. The power was shared by the legislative, executive and judicial. The supreme legislative organ was the two-chamber National veche, elected for a period of 6 years on the basis of a high property qualification. The two-chamber veche, elected for a period of 4 years, was the legislative power.The executive power belonged to the Imperator.The judicial power was in the hands of the Supreme Court. The Class build was cancelled, proclaiming civil and political freedoms.

The project of Muraviov was discussed in the Northern society, but did not become the document expressing views of all the members of society. A more radical current, leaded by Kondraty Fedorovich Ryleev (1795-1826) became more and more powerful. K.F.Ryleev adhered to republican views.

The most intense activity of the Decembrists organizations took place in 1824-1825: the preparation for the opened armed revolt was going on, a great work was being done for the coordination of political platforms of the Northern and Southern societies. In 1824 the decision to prepare and carry out the unification of the congress and a military revolution the summer of 1826, was accepted. In the second half of 1825, the forces of Decembrists increased: the Southern society of unified Slavs joined the Vasilkovskaya board; it was created in 1818 as a secret political "Society of the first agreement"; in 1823 it was transformed to the Society of the United Slavs, which intended to create a powerful republican democratic federation of Slavic peoples. In May 1821 the Emperor knew about the plot of Decembrists: they informed about the plans and the structure of the Union of prosperity. But Alexander I just said two words: "It is not my duty to execute them".

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