The city of Orenburg, founded in 1743, is the administrative centre of Orenburgskaya oblast. The population (1.01.2001) is 538 thousand people.
World-famous downy shawls earned Orenburg its world glory.
The history of Orenburg is rather surprising. It reflects the way of Russia beginning with the name of the city and till hard times of its development. Orenburg was established three times from 1735 to 1743. The city was laid in April 19, 1743 on the high bank of the river Yaik, not far from the confluence of the river Sakmara into it.
Modern Orenburg is the large industrial centre. The united state register totals about 11000 enterprises and organizations of all patterns of ownership and management. Among them are the leaders of industrial production of Orenburg "Invertor" Public Limited Company, "Radiator" PLC, "Orenburg plant of rubber mechanical goods" PLC, "Orentex' PLC, "Strela" Production Association, "Orstan" PLC. New "know-how" and methods of management are characteristics of "Orenburggasprom" PLC.
The city of Orenburg is the large railway centre connecting Central Europe with Asia. Here are the communications with Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, Siberia and the Far East, the South of Russia and Ukraine. The modern railway station and the system of transport organizations allow cargo reception and consignment in a short space of time.
Highways connect Orenburg with the largest cities of Russia such as the capital of Tatarstan Kazan and the capital of Bashkortostan Ufa. The republican highway Moscow - Kazan goes through Orenburg.
Orenburg with its remarkable past, fine traditions, and connection with masters of world art, sciences, production of goods, succeeds in all spheres of life.
Orenburg became the native land of space ecological monitoring and eye microsurgery.
Orenburg was always connected with outstanding Russians. Here worked composer Vasily Soloviyev-Sedoy, poet Alexey Fatyanov whose works are world-famous today.
The Orenburg downy shawls inspired composer Grigory Ponomarenko to create his masterpiece that became the real symbol of Orenburg. Close relations connect the city with Mstislav Rostropovich.
Orenburg is the city of talented people. Here was founded and got its world popularity the Art School "Academy Sadki". Names and pictures of its followers are included into world catalogue. The regional museum and galleries of Fine Arts are known for their richest collections. The rank of people's artist of Russia is given to N.Eryshev. Artist Y.Grigoriyev and sculptor N.Petin are created the honored artists of Russia. Literary life is also rich here thanks to P.Krasnov and other author of books published in Russia and abroad. In 1996 the Orenburg drama theatre celebrated its 140s anniversary. Such great Russian actors as M.Tarkhanova, P.Strepetov and V.Komissarzhevskaya acted here.
The pearl of professional art is the Orenburg State Russian National Chorus. The regional philharmonic society contributes to popularization of classical, national and spiritual musical art. The Chamber Orchestra, municipal Chamber Chorus and Sacred Music Chorus 'Preobrazheniye' won the public recognition.
There are the following institutes in Orenburg: the Medical, Pedagogical, Polytechnic and Agricultural ones; besides there are the faculties of the State Academy of Oil and Gas, the Moscow Institute of Law, the Moscow Commercial University, the Samara Institute of Railway Transport Engineers, the branch of the All-Russian Correspondence Financial and Economic Institute.