Salekhard is an administrative centre of Yamalo-Nenetsky autonomous district, a member of the Union of the historical cities of Russia. It is situated at the distance of 2436 km to the north from Tyumen on the Poluyskaya heights, on the right bank of the river Ob where the river Poluy flows into it. This place is near the Northern polar circle in the permafrost zone. The climate is sharply continental and severe. Average temperatures of January vary from -22 to -26 degrees centigrade, of July - 4-14 degrees above zero. Precipitations make 200-400 mm a year. The city was founded in 1595 as a Cossack fortress Obdorsk. The today's name appeared in 1933. The population is 34,4 thousand people.
In 1930 Obdorsk became the center of Yamalo-Nenetsky national district, in 1933 it was renamed into Salekhard. In 1938 the settlement became a city.
In the city there is a significant part of the administrative organizations and educational institutions of Yamalo-Nenetsky autonomous district. Salekhard is the cultural centre both of the Yamal old residents and native northern peoples. The industry is represented by the electric power industry, food and wood-working enterprises. There are the fish-cannery, dairy and house-building plants. The timber-handling base of Salekhard is the organizational centre of geological prospecting.
Here you can visit the museum of local lore (various works of local masters, for example, bone engraving, embroidery and application on fur, leather and cloth). Near Salekhard were found sites of the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age (2nd -1st millenniums B.C.).
During the last years the ancient city changes before our very eyes. Now high apartment houses and modern highways are built here. Both the inhabitants and visitors are surprised with the architectural originality of the capital.
Salekhard still is a large railway and transport junction providing delivery of cargoes. There are a river port and a new splendid airport in the city.
Salekhard turns to a capital of the chief gas and petroleum territory, an administrative centre of the region - an important transport, business and financial centre.