Krasnoyarsk, the regional centre, is situated on the banks of the river Yenisei, 3955 kms eastwards from Moscow.
It is the large transport unit of Eastern Siberia at the intersection of Yenisei and the Transsiberian trunk-railway and highway Moscow - Vladivostok. There is the airport in Krasnoyarsk.
It was founded in 1628 by voevode A.Dubensky as the Krasnoyarsk stockaded town in Kyzyl - Dzar for protection against attacks of Tatars and their tribute. The name of the place suggested the rise of red rocks in precipices of the river Kachi that flows into Yenisei. Russian translation of the place determined the name of the burg.
Intensive development of Krasnoyarsk began with building of the Moscow road (1735-41) (Achinsk - Krasnoyarsk - Kansk). In the year 1756 near Kansk the ironworks of merchant Vlasiyevsky was founded.
In the 19th century Krasnoyarsk became the centre of the Siberian cossacks. Since 1822 it is the city and the centre of the Yenisei province.
In the end of the 19 century in Krasnoyarsk worked various small enterprises, railway workshops, locomotive depot.
During the pre-war years large enterprises such as "Sibtyazhmash", shipyard, pulp-and-paper works, enterprises of light industry, power station and port were constructed in Krasnoyarsk. Since 1934 Krasnoyarsk is the centre of Krasnoyarsky krai.
During the Great Patriotic War dozens of enterprises from front areas were evacuated here.
Krasnoyarsk is the important industrial centre of Eastern Siberia.
Machine-building and metal working are represented here: "Sibtyazhmash", "Krastyazhmash", "Kombainprom", "Krasmashzavod", machine-building, electrocar-repair, wood-working, ship-building, radio engineering, TV sets plant, etc.
Chemical production: "Khimvolokno", "Khimbytpribor", chemical works "Yenisei", plants of synthetic rubber, tires, medical preparations, rubber mechanical products.
Metallurgy: "Sibenergotsvetmet", "Yeniseizoloto", metallurgical works, "Sibelectrostal", aluminium and nonferrous metals works, etc.
Wood-working industry (pulp-and-paper plant, building materials (cement, industrial building constructions plants, etc.). Enterprises of light and food-processing industry.
Culture, science, education.
The Scientific Centre of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences unites Institutes of physics, chemistry, chemical technology and forestry, computer centers and other scientific institutes.
In Krasnoyarsk works the Siberian and Far East branch of the Russian Academy of Arts. Here are the Krasnoyarsk University, Agricultural University, Academy of Nonferrous Metals and Gold.
Institutes of Arts, the Commercial, Construction, Medical, Pedagogical, Polytechnic institutes, the Siberian Technological Institute and the Siberian Space Academy.
Besides there is the faculty of the Novosibirsk Institute of Water Transport, a branch of the Correspondence Institute of Food-processing Industry. The Higher Military School of Air Defence.
The theatres of Opera and Ballet, Drama, Musical comedy, the Theatre of Young Spectator, the Puppet Theatre.
There are the Big and Small Concert Halls, the Dance Hall, the Organ Music Hall.
The circus, philarmonic society, book publishing house, House of press, House of book, House of actor; 2 exhibition halls.
The Museum of local lore with several branches, the Cultural and Historical Centre, V.I.Lenin Museum, P.A.Krasikov Museum, V.I.Surikov Manor, the Art Museum named after Surikov.
The southeast part of Krasnoyarsk adjoins directly to the reserve Stolby with rocks of the fantastical shape.
On the site of former Guard tower stands a chapel (rebuilt in 1854-55).
Architectural monuments: Pokrovskaya church (1785-95, restored in 1977-78), Blagoveshenskaya church (1804-12), etc.
Monuments of the Siberian architecture were preserved here: former private residences of merchants Gadalovy, merchant - bibliophile Yudin (the beginning of the 20 century).
Krasnoyarsk is the native land of artist V.I.Surikov, scientist and geographer G.N.Potanin, statesman P.A.Krasikov, opera singers V.I.Piyavko, D.A. Khvorostovsky, musicians - pianist V.V.Krainev, violinist V.V.Tretiyakov, etc.