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Forced economic development

Acceleration of industrialisation process in conditions of swelling unbalancing of market relations, budget deficit, inflation led to strengthening of administrative methods of control and management. Since 1930 commerce credit is no longer used; all industrial and other enterprises are credited through Federal Bank. In 1930-1931 instead of numerous taxes are one turnover tax is introduced. Since 1936 Ministries have a right to redistribute not only contributions from production units' income, from centralised finance resources, but also from floating assets, incomes and allocations for depreciation of the controlled production units.

Sphere of market controls in the village practically no longer worked. Other, administrative controls were effective so far only in the sphere of extracting products from the village, but not in sphere of production. In those conditions course to complete collectivisation was taken.

Wild rates of industrial growth, of urbanising demanded sky-rocketing in agricultural products deliveries to the city and for export. All that necessitated to increase rates of collectivisation. Lack of industrial products as exchange for agricultural products led again to off-economical methods of restraint in agrarian sector: grain, meat, milk, butter and other products were more and more often not bought or exchanged, but barely taken away from the farmer. The results of that policy were obvious: constriction of production, open actions against local powers, village activists.

In return domestic powers began the known campaign of "raskulatshivanie". This word is not translatable. That means that local punitive body takes away, "appropriates" the house, all the commodity, all the foodstuffs from the family of a wealthy farmer, who had refused to give away results of his and his family's hard work for actually nothing, takes away all the cattle, tools - everything, except maybe clothes, and sends the whole family (together with children, babies) to some far-away land, often with severe climate, to Siberia, for example. To start a new live in a new, unknown place. Naturally, many of them died, the first were small children. In 1930-1931 in the campaign of "raskulatshivanie" only to far-away regions 381000 "kulak" families were evicted. All in all by 1931 about 3 500 000 farmers were cast out from their home places, about 50% of them settled in the same regions, where they had lived before. To stop slaughter of cattle, village administration urged to socialise it as quickly as possible. But due to lack of suitable premises, due to lack of experience in collective stockraising farms cattle mortality went up and up.

In order to stop general fall of agricultural production, the village is urged to put under strict administrative control. The process of socialising is whipped up in all possible ways. Passive resistance of collective farmers grows stronger (absenteeism, working "let things slide" etc.). Stalin demands to fulfil the plan by all costs. In a number of regions the barns are swept up clean.

The extraordinary measures, including famine, broke the resistance of the farmers. Forcible labour of former farmers was broadly used in the Soviet Union. In 1935 forcible labour sector counted 2 850 000 people.

As a result of complete collectivisation a sole system of pipage of financial, material, labour resources from agrarian sector into industrial one was created.

The second five-year plan in the area of agriculture (it was being worked out in conditions of supremacy of the socialised sector) presupposed concrete federal tasks on growth of collective farm and state farm productions, their technical reconstruction, on animal-breeding development. Beginning with 1930, federal annual sowing plans were worked out, since 1932 - plans of tractor stations work, and since 1935 - plans on stockraising, which included tasks on livestock capita growth in animal-breeding farms, on purchasing cattle, on contracting cattle from farmers and on the feedstuff base broadening.

Results of the forced development

If we estimate those results from the viewpoint of direct impact onto development of agrarian sector, then the progress will be not disparate as compared with the loss. Within 1929-1932 the cows livestock capita decreased by one third (20,000,000 head of cattle) horses - one third (11,000,000), pigs - twice as low, sheep and goats - 2.5 as low.

In the middle of 30-s the situation in the agrarian sector stabilised. In 1935 food rationing was cancelled. during 1930-s 15-20 mln workers disentangled from agriculture, that allowed to increase manpower of working class from 9 up to 24 mln. Working efficiency in agricultural area increased.

The main result of the collectivisation was no doubt industrial leap. Rates of growth in heavy industry within 1928-1940 were 2-3 times higher as compared with the favourable 13 years of Russia (1900-1913). In late 30-s on absolute volume of industrial production the USSR occupied 2-d place in the world after the USA (in 1913 - the 5-th place).

And the most important result: the quality, in-depth retardation was overcome at last. In 30-s the USSR was one of three-four countries capable to manufacture practically any kind of industrial products.

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