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Social and economic reforms of 1992-1993. 'Shock therapy'
Foreign policy in 1992-1993.
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Foreign policy in 1992-1993.

After disintegration of the Soviet Union and declaration of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Russian Federation, acting as assign of the USSR on international arena, took the place of a constant member of the Security Council of the United Nations and retained the status of a great nuclear power. At the same time, current fundamentally new geopolitical conditions forced Russia to build the concept of its foreign policy anew.

Two major directions of the Russian foreign policy were determined: relations with former republics of the USSR, so-called near, or new, foreign countries, and also with leading Western countries, and, first of all, with USA.

Relations of Russia with new independent states of near foreign countries were determined, first of all, by problems of formation of political and economic cooperation within the framework of CIS: protection of interests of Russian-speaking population in former republics of the Soviet Union, and first of all, in Baltic states and Kazakhstan; partition of "inheritance" of former Soviet Army. Immediately after disintegration of the USSR relations of Russia with Ukraine worsened in connection with the problem of the Black Sea military fleet partition and the question of Crimea and Sevastopol status.

At the same time attempt of creation of United Armed forces (UAF) of the CIS was not crowned with success. In this connection in May 1992 the Russian leadership made the decision on creation of the Russian Armed forces. It caused sharp reduction of people in army. In the complex of military questions an important place occupied the problem of nuclear potential reduction, which Russia inherited from the USSR. After disintegration of the USSR nuclear-missile weapon remained intact on the territory of the Russian Federation, Byelorussia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Three former Soviet republics declared nuclear-free status and pledged to hand over to Russia all nuclear weapon on their territory.

At the same time, in spite of all statements about full "independence and sovereignty", the states of former USSR could not do without effective military and political support of Russia.

A way out of this situation after disintegration of UAF of CIS became the concluded on May 15, 1992 in Tashkent the Treaty of collective safety (TCS), which was sighed by six leaders of the CIS countries: Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan. Three more states of the Commonwealth had joined TCS by the end of 1993 - Azerbaijan, Byelorussia and Georgia.

In 1992-1993 Russian Armed forces, acting under the aegis of CIS, accepted responsibility on settlement of interethnic conflicts, which flashed on periphery of post-Soviet territory.

After the disintegration of the union state acquired irreversible character, and its basic material and military resources were divided, economic relations between countries - participants of the Commonwealth began to get interstate shape. There was some progress in the development of CIS structure. On January 22, 1993 in Minsk the countries of Commonwealth signed the Charter of the CIS.

The basic problem in development of relations between countries-participants of CIS was establishment of mutually advantageous economic links. But because of rouble zone collapse by the end of 1992, Russia was compelled to sell energy carrier to the CIS countries at world prices. In the result the external debt of new independent states began to grow fast, and turnover of commodities within the CIS came down considerably. Thus, serious disintegration processes on the post-Soviet space marked the first two years after disintegration of the USSR.

In 1992 the foreign policy of Russia in relation with distant foreign countries went through 'period of transition'. Dominant influence on formation of foreign policy doctrines of Russia rendered its difficult social and economic position. The consequence of financial support by the industrially developed countries of West of radical market reforms in Russia in 1992-1993 became the fact that Russia supported the politics of the USA and the NATO. During B.N.Yeltsin's visit to USA in February 1992 the Russian-American Declaration on termination of "the cold war" was signed. This document declared, that both powers 'do not consider each other to be potential enemies any more".

In April 1992 Russia was accepted into the International currency fund and the World bank. However, of promised by these international financial organizations 24 billion dollars of financial help, Russia did not receive more than two thirds. The apogee of Russian-American relations was the signing in Moscow on January 3, 1993 of a new Treaty on restriction of strategic offensive armaments (SOA-2), according to which both sides agreed to significant reductions in nuclear potentials (in two thirds) by 2003. Besides, Russia pledged itself to reduce three thousand SS-20 class rockets with cluster warheads of individual pointing, which actually weakened defensive potential of the country.

In 1992-1993 a significant place in foreign policy of Russia occupied strengthening of relations with leading countries of Asia and Pacific region. In this period diplomatic relations with South Korea were established, China became the main trading partner of our country, relations with ASEAN were restored. One of the most difficult problems was relation with Japan because of unknown future of four islands of the Kuril ridge. Connections with traditional partners of our country in Asia - Mongolia, Vietnam, North Korea, Iraq, Syria etc. were considerably weakened.

At the same time, nominally, international connections of Russia noticeably enlarged: diplomatic relations with the republic of South Africa were established, there were regular meetings at top level with the leaders of leading western countries, in July 1992 Boris Yeltsin was officially invited to the political part of a meeting of 'Big Seven' industrially developed countries of the world in Munich.

As a whole, problems and contradictions, caused by the transition period in establishing of the Russian foreign policy, gradually were eliminated in the process of strengthening of its State organization.

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