The Azerbaijanians name themselves the Azerbaijanlylar and the Azeriler. In the Russian Federation there are 335,9 thousand persons of the Azerbaijanians. They are the basic population of Azerbaijan. The Azerbaijanians live also in Iran (mainly in the north) and other countries. Language is the Azerbaijan, which belongs to the Oguz groups of Turkic languages, but adult and city children know the Russian language. The writing was based on the Russian alphabet. The law on restoration of the Azerbaijan alphabet with the Latin writing (was used in 1929-39) was passed in 1991. The Azerbaijanians belongs to the Moslems - Shiites by the religion. There were ethnographic groups of the Azerbaijanians, which are distinguished by some features in an economy, culture and a life. They are the Airums, the Karapapakhs, the Padars, the Shakhsevens, the Karadags, and the Afshars etc. Some of them live outside the former USSR, in Iran and Turkey.The Azerbaijanians were named the Turks and the Tatars in the historical literature and official documents of the XIX - the beginning of XX centuries. The ancient indigenous population of the Atropatens and the Caucasian Albania mixed with the Iranian and Tukspeaking tribes (the Cimmerians, the Scythians, the Huns, the Bulgars, the Khasars, the Oguzs, the Pechenegs etc.) participated in the Azerbaijanians ethnogeny. The result of intrusions and subsidence into Azerbaijan of a new wave of the Turk speaking nations (specially the Seljuk) was the formation of Azerbaijan people, which basically finished in the XI - XIII centuries. The Soviet Power was established in Azerbaijan in April 1920. The independent Azerbaijan was formed on the territory of the former Azerbaijan SSR. The president is the head of the state. The parliament (the Millie Mejlis) is the highest legislative body and is elected for 5 years. The Azerbaijan includes the Nakhichevan Autonomous republic. The Azerbaijan included the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region (НКАО) since 1923. There was a conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia concerning the Nagorny Karabakh (Аrtsakh), which led to the full-scale military actions in 1988-1989. The Republic of Azerbaijan Supreme Council has made the decision on the liquidation of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region in November 1991.