Russian   
ABOUT THE PROJECT STATE CULTURE AND ART HISTORY GEOGRAPHY AND NATURE PEARLS OF RUSSIA TOURISM GUEST BOOK  
 Russia State   Nations of Russia
 :: Articles
The Russians
The Aguls
The Akhvakhs
The Aleuts
The Altaians
The Andians nations
The Andins
The Archins
The Armenians
The Aserbaijanians
The Assyrians
The Avars
The Baghulals
The Balkarians
The Baraba Tatars
The Bashkirs
The Besermians
The Bezhtians
The Botlikhs
The Bulgarians
The Buryats
The Byelorussians
The Chamalals
The Chechens
The Cherkess
The Chukchis
The Chuvashs
The Cossacks
The Crimean Tatars
The Dargins
The Didos
The Dolgans
The Enets
The Eskimos
The Estonians
The Evenks
The Evens
The Finns
The Gagauz
The Georgians
The Germans
The Ginukhs
The Godoberins
The Greeks
The Gypsies
The Hunzibs
The Ingush
The Itelmens
The Izhorians
The Jews
The Kabards
The Kalmyks
The Karachay
The Karatas
The Karelians
The Kazakhs
The Kets
The Khakass
The Khants
The Khvarshis
The Komi-Permyaks
The Komis
The Koreans
The Koryaks
The Kumuks
The Kyrgyz
The Laks
The Latvians
The Lezgins
The Lithuanians
The Mansis
The Maris
The Moldovans
The Mordvins
The Mountain Jews
The Nanais
The Negidals
The Nenets
The Nganasans
The Nivkhs
The Nogays
The Orochis
The Oroks
The Ossetians
The Permyak Komis
The Poles
The Adygy
The Rutuls
The Saams
The Selkups
The Shors
The Small Nations of North
The Tabasarans
The Tajiks
The Tatars
The Tats
The Teleuts
The Tofalars
The Tsakhurs
The Turkmens
The Tyva
The Udeghes
The Udmurts
The Ukranians
The Ulchis
The Uzbeks
The Veps
The Vods
The Yakuts
The Yukaghirs
 :: Search
Search in articles
Search in current section
 :: Constructor
 :: Game server
 :: Test

The Karelians

The Karelianas live in Russia (124,9 th. p.)
The name Karelia first occurs in Scandinavian sources in the 8th century. In the mid-12th century Karelia and the Karelians are mentioned in Russian chronicles. The Karelians are the original Baltic-Finnic tribe in the area between Lakes Ladoga and Onega. However, the Finns from Finnish Karelia have also been called Karelians, although they speak a Finnish dialect. The Izhorians are of the same origin as the Karelian people.
In early references the Karelian language is also Olonets or East Karelian. The speakers of Karelian proper (North and South Karelian) use the same name karjalaiset or karjalazhet for themselves and their language is karjalan kieli(i). The Olonets Karelians call themselves lidi or ligi and livvikit, and their language is livvin kieli. The speakers of the Ludic dialect use ldikit or luudikoit for themselves and their language is ldi or luudikiel.
The Karelians are widely distributed over a large territory. The Karelians of Karelia live chiefly west of the St. Petersburg-Murmansk railway line in the Karelia their administrative centre is Petrozavodsk or Petroskoi. The Tver Karelians inhabit areas west of Moscow where, they have enclaves in the districts of Likhoslavl, Spirovo, Rameshkovo and Maksatikha (in the 1960s they numbered approximately 90,000--100,000) A large group of Karelians lives in the districts of Vesyegonsky, Sandovo and Brusovo (in the 1960s approximately 20,000). There are Karelian villages in the districts of Molokovo, Krasny Holm and Vyshni Volochok, the southernmost of which are located in the vicinity of Rzhev. The southernmost Karelians live separately from other Tver Karelians in five villages on the Djorzha, a tributary of the River Volga. In 1890 there were 1,664 Karelians in the South Tver area, in 1911 they numbered 1,952. Today, their number has been reduced to 70 (according to J. ispuu), most of whom return to their home villages only in summertime.
Anthropologically the Karelians belong to the East-Baltic race in which strongly European features are blended with some Mongolian traits.
Karelian belongs to the North group of the Baltic-Finnic language, with the closest related language being Finnish. Some scholars do not regard Karelian as a separate language at all, but classify it as an eastern dialect of the Finnish language. However, it should be considered a separate language because of its geo-political location within the boundaries of another state.
The traditional activities of the Karelians have been land tillage, fishing, hunting and timber cutting. As recently as the second half of the 19th century, the Karelians lived in big 25--30 member families. Large industries were developed in the Soviet period. As a result, there was a constant influx of Russian-speaking people and now the Karelians have become a minority in their native land.
The Karelians possess a rich and original folkloristic heritage. This has been preserved in its authentic form longer than the folklore of other Baltic-Finnic nationalities. Most of the Kalevala songs are of Karelian origin. Apart from academic publications concerning Karelian folklore and some research, very few Karelian-language books have been published. The oldest Karelian-language text -- a three-line birch bark letter -- dates from the 13th century. It was found during archaeological excavations in the Novgorod region in 1957 and it is believed to be the oldest Baltic-Finnic text. The first Karelian-language books were printed in the early 19th century in Cyrillic script (the translation of a prayer book and catechism into North Karelian and Olonets dialects, 1804, St. Matthew's gospel in South Karelian Tver dialect, 1820). Because of the unfavourable conditions, there is no common Karelian language.



Copyright © RIN 2001-. Russia Russia site map Feedback