Russia History   Soviet Russia   Civil War
 :: Articles
The Policy of Russia in the field of Economy.
The Basis of the Economic Policy of the Whites.
Armed Forces of Soviet Russia.
Armed Forces of Opponents of Bolsheviks.
Armed Struggle in Ukraine and in the South of Russia
Negotiations with Germany, the Relations with Entente.
The Anti-Bolsheviks Actions.
Brest Peace.
Civil war and Military Intervention.
Counterattack of the Red Army.
Military actions in the West and the North of Russia.
The Soviet-Polish War. Vrangel's Defeat.
The Policy of Military Communism
Culture, Art and Science.
 :: Search
Search in articles
Search in current section
 :: Constructor
 :: Game server
 :: Test

Culture, Art and Science.

The leadership of the Bolsheviks party centralized management of culture, art and science. November 9, 1917 the VTSYK and SNK founded the State commission of education, headed by A.V.Lunacharsky (1875-1933). In the beginning of 1920 work on requisition and nationalization of book assemblies, which property was transferred to the state scientific and mass libraries, was completed.

At the end of December, 1918 by the decree of the VTSYK the State publishing house was founded.In October 1917 the Union of proletarian cultural and educational organizations (Proletcult) was organizationally formed. Among its heads and theorists were A.A.Bogdanov, F.I. Kalinin, P.I.Lebedev-Polyansky etc. Only in 1919 up to 400 thousand people were involved in proletcult movement. They issued up to 20 own magazines.

In November 1917 the department of arts solving questions of rendering assistance to artists and poets etc. was formed. Activity of the department was under influence of artists of the "left" direction. Artists V.M.Konashevich, B.M.Kustodiev, V.V.Lebedev and others took active part in illustration of the mass national library. N.A.Andreev, G.S.Vereysky, B.M.Kustodiev developed portrait painting in their work. In landscape graphics of A.I.Kravchenko, N.I.Piskarev, V.D.Falileev associative forms - motives of storming elements prevailed.

April 12, 1918 the decree of the SNK " Of monuments of the republic " was published, providing replacement of monuments to the tsar and his servants by new ones. According to the decree in 1918-1920 it was raised about 40 new monuments in Moscow and Petrograd. The art of decoration was wide spread, to bring the ideas of revolution to the masses.

Great attention was paid to the rise of the Soviet musical art. The Bolshoi and the Mariinsky theatres, the court orchestra (State symphonic), Synod school, conservatories, musical publishing houses, factories of musical tools passed under state authority. Under direction of musical department of the Narcompros (National enlightenment committee) education work in the broad masses was conducted, though no major music works were created. The main attention was focused on the song genre, adaptation of national and revolutionary motives, writing of military marches and songs on military themes. Many composers, performers, musicologists actively participated in educational and art-propagandistic work. Among them were B.V.Asafyev, S.N.Vasilenko, A.K.Glazunov, M.F.Gnesin, F.I.Shalyapin etc.

With the purpose of establishment of strict control of the repertoire, the repertoire section was formed at the theatrical branch of the Narcompros, in which A.A.Block, N.Bahtin, V.Meyerhold, K.Chukovsky worked. Only in Moscow in 1918 45 professional theatres were functioning.In 1918 in Petrograd with participation of M.F.Andreyeva, A.A.Block, M.Gorky, A.V.Lunacharsky the Bolshoi drama theatre was founded.

With the decree of August 27, 1919 the Sovnarcom legalized nationalization of cinema. In total in 1918-1920 it was produced more than 200 chronicle films. The Bolsheviks party leadership and the Soviet government alongside with the concern of development of new culture and art resolutely struggled with that part of intelligency, which, in their opinion, was anti-soviet.Autumn of 1922 the scientists of the 1st Moscow university, the Petrovsko-Razumovskaya agricultural academy, philosophers, agriculturists, doctors, engineers, writers etc. - total about 200 people were sent abroad from Moscow. Among them were N.A.Berdyaev, P.А. Sorokin, N.O.Lossky, F.A.Stepun etc.

The party and the Soviet government of the RSFSR alongside with establishing control of development of culture and art also centralized management of science. The Russian Academy of sciences, headed by A.P.Karpinsky, in the beginning of 1918 declared its willingness to participate in solution of tasks raised with the needs of the Soviet republic. In April the SNK decided to start financing of the work of the Academy of sciences.

In the field of development of social studies the new authority headed for introduction of communistic ideology. The Sovnarcom of the RSFSR June 15, 1918 ratified regulations of the Socialist academy of social studies (SАОN). Mainly members of Bolsheviks party V.D.Bonch-Bruyevich, A.V.Lunacharsky, N.K.Krupskaya and others participated in its activity. M.N.Pokrovsky headed the SАОN. The academy was engaged in studying and propagation of the Marxist theory, professional training. In 1920 with the purpose of studying scientific methods in all fields of education the Institute of scientific methodology was opened in spirit of revolutionary Marxism.

Copyright © RIN 2001-. Russia Russia site map Feedback