The Chechya Republic (the own name Ichkeria) is situated in the south of the European part of Russia. Its area is about 16 thousand sq. km.
The republic includes 5 cities and 20 districts.
The population is more than 1 million people, about 70 % of them are Chechens.
The capital of the Chechen Republic is Grozny.
The republic is situated in the northeast part of Caucasus occupying the northern mountainsides of Caucasus and adjoining steppes and plains. In the west the Chechen Republic borders upon Ingushetia, Northern Ossetia, in the north upon Stavropol Territory, in the east it borders upon Dagestan and in the south lies Georgia.
The main rivers are Terek and Sunzha.
Chechens are the indigenous people of Northern Caucasus. Chechens and their ancestors lived here for thousands years. The part of their territory was occupied by the Iranian-speaking Alans (ancestors of the Ossetins) in the 9-12th centuries, by Golden Horde in 13-15th centuries and later by the Russian Empire, which in its struggle for domination in Northern Caucasus in 16th century managed to supersede the Ottoman and the Persian rivals.
On November 30, 1922 the Chechen Autonomous Oblast was formed.
In 1934 appeared the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast, which on December 5, 1936 was reorganized into the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
On February 23, 1944 the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was abolished and Chechens were forcedly deported in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
On January 9, 1957 the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored.
The Chechen Republic arose on September - November, 1991 as a result of disintegration of the USSR.
The basic industries (seriously damaged during operations) are the oil-producing, oil-processing, machine-building, food, timber, woodworking and light industries.
There are the crafts (woodcarving, decorative processing of metals, embroidery, etc.).
Fruit growing, viniculture, vegetable growing, cattle breeding are also developed.
On September 1991 the National Congress of the Chechen people declared the state sovereignty of the Chechen Republic. In 1992 the institute of president was founded. These acts were not recognized by the Russian Federation. The policy of D. Dudayev regime resulted in the critical socio-political crisis in the Chechen Republic and gross infringement of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. On December 1994 in order to restore the constitutional legality and the law and order the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation invaded the Chechen Republic. Resistance of the Chechen armed formations resulted in the full-scale war. In August 1996 the Khasavyurt Treaty was signed.
In Chechnya began the process of restoration of local authorities and the national economy destroyed during the war. In the course of the legitimate elections Aslan Maskhadov became the president of the Chechen Republic.
On September 1999 military operations in the Chechen Republic broke out again.
As a result the economy, culture and social infrastructure, cities and villages of the republic underwent full or partial destruction again.