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Orlovskaya Oblast

Orlovskaya OblastOrlovskaya Oblast is situated in the central part of the East European plain within the Central Russian height (278 m high). In the south Orlovskaya Oblast borders upon Kurskaya Oblast, in the west - upon Bryanskaya Oblast, in the northwest - upon Kaluzhskaya Oblast, in the north and northeast - upon Tulskaya Oblast and in the east lies Lipetskaya Oblast.
The Orel land is the territory of numerous (255) shallow and slow rivers. All they belong to the basin of three largest rivers of Central and Southern Russia - Volga (Oka and its tributaries - 60 %), Don (the river Sosna with its tributaries - 30 %) and Dnepr (Navlya and Vytebet - 10 %).
The climate is moderately continental. The average temperature of January is 9 degrees below zero; the average temperature of July is +18 degrees centigrade. Precipitations are about 500 mm a year. The area of Orlovskaya Oblast is 24,7 thousand sq. km. (0,14 % of the total area of the Russian Federation). It was Orlovskaya Oblastfounded on September 27, 1937. The centre is Orel founded in the year of 1566. The distance to Moscow is 382 km. The city includes 3 districts: Zheleznodorozhny, Zavodskoy, Sovetsky. The administrative centre of the region was intended as a fortress for protection of southern borders of the Russian state. In the beginning of XVII century the city was one of the centers of Bolotnikov revolt. In 1611 the fortress was destroyed by the Polish group under the command of A. Lisovsky. In 1635-1636 the fortress was restored and existed till 1702. Since the middle of XVII century Orel is known as the centre of grain trade. At Peter I here were constructed the first Russian canvas manufactory and a spinnery. Since 1708 Orel is part of the Kiev province, since 1719 the centre of the Orel province, since 1727 it is a part of the Belgorod province, since 1778 Orel is Orlovskaya Oblastthe centre of the region ruled by governor-general (a little after a centre of the province again).
During the Patriotic War of 1812 Orel was one of the main rear bases of the Russian army.
In middle of XVIII-XIX centuries it was a merchant city with small handicraft enterprises for processing of agricultural production and a large corn-trade centre. Since 1928 the city of Orel became a part of Tsentralnochernozemnaya Oblast, since 1934 - of Kurskaya Oblast. In 1937 the city became the centre of Orlovskaya Oblast. In honour of liberation of Orel and Belgorod on August 1943 the first salute in the history of Great Patriotic War was given in Moscow.
The Orel land is the centre of the country, a territory rich in historical and cultural traditions. Here lived and worked such famous Russian writers and poets as Turgenev, Leskov, Fet, Andreyev, Bunin and others. Here during the Great Patriotic War took place the biggest battle of the 20th century - the Orel-Kursk battle. These are the ancient cities and modern manufactures, purposeful creative people and fine Central Russian nature.

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