Stretched in the meridian direction from the Arctic Ocean to the present Kazakhstan border, Tyumenskaya Oblast actually divides the territory of the Russian Federation into two big parts: the European part and Ural to the west, Siberia and the Far East to the east.
Tyumenskaya Oblast includes two national formations: Khanty-Mansiysky and Yamalo-Nenetsky autonomous okrugs. The structure of the population is diverse. Tyumenskaya Oblast was formed in 1944. Its area is 1435,2 thousand sq. km. (8,41 % of the total area of the Russian Federation, 3d in the list). The distance from Tyumen to Moscow is 2144 km. The regional centre is Tyumen (1581). The city consists of three districts: Kalininsky, Leninsky, Tsentralny.
The region includes 2 autonomous okrugs, 28 districts and 24 cities. The main cities are Tyumen (500,1 thousand inhabitants), Tobolsk (116,8), Ishim (64,8), Yalutorovsk (37,3) and Zavodoukovsk (25,9). The population of the region (on January 1, 1998) is 3228,1 thousand people. Density of population (on January 1, 1998) is 2,2 per 1 sq. km.
Tyumenskaya Oblast was formed on the 14th of August, 1944. By its size and outlines the oblast almost coincided with Tobolsk province formed in 1796.
In 1919 the Tobolsk province was renamed into the Tyumen province, and in 1923 it became a part of Uralskaya Oblast with Sverdlovsk as its centre.
One more administrative change took place in 1934 when the Tyumen province became a part of Ob- Irtyshskaya Oblast with its centre in Omsk. The administrative centre of the oblast - Tyumen - was the first Russian city in Siberia.
It was founded in 1586 as an exile place on the site of the Tatar city Chimgi-Tura conquered by Ermak in 1581. However, some years later leadership in the territory passed to Tobolsk founded on the place where the Tatar capital called Siberia stood earlier. The name "Siberia" was soon extended over the space between Ural and the Pacific Ocean.
Some centuries Tobolsk was the main administrative and military centre of Siberia.
Later in 1708 Tobolsk became the centre of the Siberian province. In Tobolsk for the first time in Siberia a stone kremlin was erected.
However, influence of Tyumen as an important transport, industrial, trading and financial centre of Western Siberia began to grow gradually. In the beginning of XX century Tyumen outstripped Tobolsk in the number of inhabitants in one and a half time. Nowadays Tobolsk is the second largest city in the south of Tyumenskaya Oblast.
There are 160 museums in Tyumenskaya Oblast, 53 of them are state and municipal.
The Tyumen Regional Scientific Library is the unique state storage of documents of the domestic and world culture.
The city of Tyumen takes a special place in the history of Russia. Founded in 1586, it became the first Russian city in Siberia. Yes, this is the place where Asian Russia originates from. Tyumen was always the gate to Siberia.
"Mother of the Siberian cities" - Tyumen - was famous for its merchant fairs, skill of handicraftsmen, breadth of soul and kindliness of its inhabitants.
Citizens of Tyumen has a lot to be proud of: the history of the richest city of pre-Revolutionary Russia, the oil capital of modern Russia - Tyumen always played a special role in the history of our country.